The electroporated cells were diluted in 1 ml LB and incubated at 37°C for three hours. The transformants were then selected on the antibiotic-imbued plates. Scarless gene modification in P. aeruginosa Scarless gene modification strategy was described in Fig. 2. First the sacB-bla cassettes were amplified from plasmid pEX18Ap with the primers F1 and R1 . The numbers of primers corresponded to the steps of PCR amplification. The electro-transformation of the sacB-bla cassette into the PAO1/pRKaraRed
competent cells was performed as described above. Transformants were screened on LB plates supplemented with 500 μg/ml carbenicillin and 50 μg/ml tetracyclin. The colonies with CarbRTetR EPZ5676 research buy phenotypes confirmed by PCR detection and DNA sequencing were regarded as positive clones. Next, the sacB-bla removal cassettes were amplified from the genomic DNA of the first-step Alpelisib mw strain with the primers F2 and R2. Then this fragment was electro-transformed into the competent cells of the first-step to perform the second recombination. Electro-transformed cells were spread on LB plates supplemented with 10% sucrose and 50 μg/ml tetracycline. The transformants were further selected parallel on the LB plates YM155 supplier with 10% sucrose and 50 μg/ml tetracycline, and the LB plates with 500 μg/ml carbenicillin and 50 μg/ml tetracycline.
The colonies with SucRCarbS phenotypes confirmed by PCR detection and DNA sequencing were regarded as positive recombinants. Twelve genes, two large operons and one nucleotide site were selected as target and their primers for PCR amplification were listed in Additional file 1, Table S1. System efficiency analysis The influences of L-arabinose concentration, induction time and the length of homology region on
the efficiency of homologous recombination were analyzed. phzS gene was selected as target. First, the PAO1/pRKaraRed cultures were induced with L-arabinose of different concentrations (ranging from 0.05% to 1.0%) for three hours. Then the PAO1/pRKaraRed cultures were Janus kinase (JAK) induced with L-arabinose of suitable concentration for different time (from 1 h to 12 h). Finally, the PCR products with homology regions of different lengths (50 bp, 60 bp, 100 bp) were used to perform homologous recombination. Control experiments and screen procedures were set same as described above. The efficiencies of recombination were calculated by dividing the number of positive colonies with the number of growing colonies. Construction of three-gene deleted strain PCA and HPLC analysis of phenazine derivatives Sequential gene modifications of multiple target genes were achieved by several rounds of recombination steps. The recombination efficiency was also detected using phenotype screen, PCR detection and DNA sequencing. The strain with three-gene deletions (PAO1, ΔphzHΔphzMΔphzS) was named as PCA.