The effects of maternal care on developing DA pathways and reward-directed behavior of female offspring that we have observed may play a critical role in the behavioral transmission of maternal LG from mother to daughter, and account for individual differences in the mesolimbic DA system. “
“In rat brain, the detection and integration of chemosensory and neural signals are achieved, inter alia, by the median preoptic
nucleus (MnPO) during a disturbance of the hydromineral balance. This is allowed through Selleck GSK3235025 the presence of the sodium (Na+) sensor neurons. Interestingly, enkephalins and mu-opioid receptors (μ-ORs) are known for their role in ingestive behaviors and have previously been shown to regulate the excitability of MnPO neurons following a single Na+ depletion. However, little is known about the role of these μ-ORs in the response enhancement following repeated Na+ challenge. Therefore, we used whole-cell recordings in acute brain slices to determine neuronal plasticity in the electrical properties of the MnPO Na+ sensor-specific
click here neuronal population following multiple Na+ depletions. Our results show that the population of Na+ sensor neurons was represented by 80% of MnPO neurons after a single Na+ depletion and was reduced after three Na+ depletions. Interestingly, the subpopulation of Na+ sensors responding to D-Ala2,N-MePhe4,Gly-ol-enkephalin (DAMGO), a specific μ-OR agonist, represented 11% of MnPO neurons after a single Na+ depletion and the population doubled after three Na+ depletions. Moreover, Na+ sensor neurons displayed modifications in the discharge pattern distribution and shape of
calcium action potentials after three Na+ depletions but these changes did not occur in Na+ sensors responding to DAMGO. Thus, the reinforced μ-OR functionality in Na+ sensors might take place to control the neuronal hyperexcitability and this plasticity in opioid-sensitive and Na+ detection MnPO networks might sustain Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 the enhanced salt ingestion induced by repeated exposure to Na+ depletion. “
“Pavlovian cues [conditioned stimulus (CS+)] often trigger intense motivation to pursue and consume related reward [unconditioned stimulus (UCS)]. But cues do not always trigger the same intensity of motivation. Encountering a reward cue can be more tempting on some occasions than on others. What makes the same cue trigger more intense motivation to pursue reward on a particular encounter? The answer may be the level of incentive salience (‘wanting’) that is dynamically generated by mesocorticolimbic brain systems, influenced especially by dopamine and opioid neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) at that moment.