The duration of symptoms was not documented in 5 (5 9%) patients

The duration of symptoms was not documented in 5 (5.9%) patients. The commonest presenting symptoms were sudden onset of severe epigastric pain in 82 (97.6%), abdominal distention in 64 (76.2%) Selleckchem Sepantronium and vomiting in 31 (36.9%) patients. Abdominal tenderness and classical signs of peritonitis were demonstrable in 74 (88.1%) and 56(66.7%) patients respectively

(Table 1). Table 1 Clinical presentation Clinical presentation Frequency Percentage Severe abdominal pain 82 97.6 Abdominal distention 64 76.2 Vomiting 31 36.9 Nausea 30 35.7 Severe dyspepsia 28 33.3 Constipation 25 29.8 Fever 18 21.4 Shock 28 33.3 Abdominal tenderness 74 88.1 Classical signs of peritonitis 56 66.7 Fifty-eight (69.0%) patients reported no previous Linsitinib solubility dmso history of treatment for peptic ulcer disease. Patients with a previous history of peptic ulcer disease had had symptoms for durations ranging from six months to 14 years and all of them were not on regular anti-ulcer therapy. Three (3.6%) patients presented with re-perforation. Nine (10.7%) patients reported history of recent ingestion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) for joint and back pains. Other risk factors recorded included alcohol consumption and smoking in 72 (85.7%) and 54 (64.3%) patients respectively. Most patients who smoked also took alcohol. In this study, six (7.1%) patients

had associated premorbid illness namely selleck compound osteoarthritis in 3 patients and hypertension, diabetes mellitus and sickle cell disease in 1 patient each respectively. Eight (9.5%) patients were HIV positive. Of these, 3 (37.5%) patients were known cases on ant-retroviral therapy (ARV) and the remaining 5 (62.5%) patients were newly diagnosed patients. nearly CD4+ count distribution among HIV positive patients ranged from 56 cells/μl to 650 cells/μl with the mean of 236 cells/μl and standard deviation of 86 cells/μl. The median and the mode were 220 cells/μl and 160 cells/μl respectively. A total of two HIV patients (25.0%) had CD4+ count below 200 cells/μl and the remaining 6 patients (75.0%) had CD4+ count of ≥200 cells/μl. Of the eight patients with HIV infection,

six (75.0%) patients reported to have risk factors for HIV infection. Of these, alcoholism [Odds Ratio 11.3, 95% C.I. (8.3-16.7), P = 0.021] and multiple sexual partners [Odds Ratio 10.8, 95% C.I. (6.7-14.9), P = 0.000] were found to be independently and significantly associated with increased risk to HIV infection Radiological, operative and histopathological findings Seventy-nine (94.0%) of the patients had plain abdominal and chest radiographs done, with free gas under the diaphragm (pneumoperitonium) demonstrated in 52 (65.8%) of them. All patients in this study underwent laparotomy. The time interval between the beginning of the symptoms of perforation and surgery ranged from12 to140 hours with the median of 72 hours. The majority of patients (76.2%) presented 48 hours or more after the onset of the symptoms of perforation.

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