The β-galactosidase was released into the culture medium after os

The β-galactosidase was released into the culture medium after osmotic shock of the recombinant S. cerevisiae osmotic-remedial thermosensitive-autolytic mutants [20, 21]. To improve the secretion of the Selleck ARRY-438162 K. lactis β-D-galactosidase, cytosolic in origin, the hybrid protein from this enzyme and its A. niger homologue, that is naturally extracellular, was constructed. The hybrid protein was active and secreted by recombinant K. lactis strain, but the amount of extracellular enzyme still remained low [22]. Yeast species especially

designated for the production of extracellular proteins are for example Pichia pastoris or Hansenula polymorpha. There is only one recently published example of an extracellular

β-galactosidase production system using P. pastoris as a host, however, it concerns thermostable enzyme from Alicyclobacillus SB202190 datasheet acidocaldarius [23]. S. cerevisiae is usually the first choice for industrial processes involving alcoholic fermentation but this yeast is unable to metabolize lactose and, therefore, the lactose consuming yeast, K. fragilis, has been used in most industrial plants producing ethanol from whey [24]. The engineering of S. cerevisiae for lactose utilization has been addressed over the past 20 years by different strategies [25]. However, most recombinant strains obtained displayed no ideal characteristics (such as slow growth, genetic instability or problems derived from the use of glucose/galactose mixtures) or were ineffective for ethanol production [24, 26, 27]. There is only one published example of efficient ethanol production with a recombinant S. cerevisiae strain expressing the LAC4 (β-galactosidase) and LAC12 (lactose permease) genes of K. lactis [28]. Hence, there is still a need for S. cerevisiae

strains producing new β-galactosidases which may appear to be an interesting L-gulonolactone oxidase alternative for the production of ethanol from lactose-based feedstock. In this respect, here we report on a new cold-adapted β-D-galactosidase, isolated from psychrothrophic, Antarctic Arthrobacter sp. 32c bacterium strain, that possesses low molecular weight of 75.9 kDa of monomer and 195 kDa of native protein. In addition, the presented enzyme is active in the range of temperature 4–8°C that is suitable for milk industry applications and can be produced extracellularly on a large scale using recombinant P. pastoris strains cultivated either on methanol or glycerol (a cheap by-product in biodiesel industry). Results Characterisation of 32c isolate Many different colonies were isolated from the Antarctic soil. One isolate, named 32c, that formed yellow colonies was chosen for further study because of its ability to hydrolyze X-Gal – the cromogenic analogue of lactose. The cells were Gram-negative rods. The optimum ICG-001 in vitro growth in LAS medium was observed between 25–27°C. No growth occurred at 37°C.

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