Since the envelope of all nuclei of all tumors was stained, nucle

Since the envelope of all nuclei of all tumors was stained, nuclear intensity was determined on the degree of staining of the Selleckchem Anlotinib nucleoplasm. Where discrepancies arose between the staining of scores from the same tumor, an average of the scores was taken, with confirmation by two observers using a double-headed microscope with a consensus decision taken in all cases. Tissue stromal cells, normal epithelium

or lymph follicles served buy MLN2238 as positive internal controls to ascertain the quality of the staining. To distinct microsatellite instable (MSI) from microsatellite stable (MSS) tumors, the TMA was stained for mismatch repair proteins MLH1 and PMS2, as previously described [25]. MLH1 and PMS2 are deficient in sporadic MSI tumors. Therefore, the expression of these proteins was used to differentiate MSI and MSS rectal cancers. Tissue stromal cells, normal epithelium or lymph follicles served as positive

internal controls when analyzing MLH1, PMS2 expression. The expression of MLH1 and PMS2 was scored positive if tumor cells showed expression, and negative if tumor cells showed no expression of either MLH1 or PMS2, provided that tissue stromal cells did show expression, indicating MSS and MSI tumors, respectively [26]. Statistical Analysis All analyses were performed with SPSS statistical software (version 12.0 for Windows, SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA). Mann-Whitney U test (M-W) was used to compare variables. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to analyze patient survival. The entry date for the survival analyses was the time of surgery of the primary tumor. Events for disease Apoptosis inhibitor free survival and overall survival were defined as follows: from time of surgery to time of disease relapse or death by any cause (for disease free survival) and time of

death by any cause (for overall survival), respectively. Patients were first separately analyzed in univariate analysis in addition, variables with a P value of <0.10 in the univariate analyses were subjected to a multivariate analysis. Cox’ regression eltoprazine analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Low Levels of CXCR4 RNA Expression Predict Good Prognosis The RNA level of CXCR4 was determined in primary tumor tissue of a cohort of 70 colorectal cancer patients using quantitative RT-PCR and linked to clinical follow-up data. The impact of high versus low expression of CXCR4 was assessed using the 50th percentile cut-off point as previously defined [10, 14]. The characteristics of the cohort colorectal cancer patients, included in this study are summarized in Table 1. To evaluate whether CXCR4 and clinicopathological features were associated, the level of CXCR4 was correlated to each feature. CXCR4 expression was not associated with any of the clinicopathological variables (Table 1). Univariate cox regression analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors for disease free survival and overall survival (Table 1).

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