Several isoflavonoids, including genistein and daidzein, have bee

Several isoflavonoids, including genistein and daidzein, have been reported to cause inhibition of the Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter, as well as an increase in natriuresis and kaluresis.24 Moreover, the flavonoid crisine has been shown to induce a significant increase in urine flow, glomerular filtration and Na+ and K+ excretion. Recently, it was reported that seven methoxy-flavonoids actively bound to adenosine receptor A1, provoking antagonism and therefore dieresis and sodium excretion.25 In the present study, in reference to the elimination of Na+, K+ and Cl−, the extract of G. seemannii Peyr. showed a greater natriuretic

than Epigenetic inhibitor kaluretic effect. The Na+/K+ ratio can define the nature of the diuretic mechanism. The Na+/K+ ratio for furosemide is approximately 1, meaning that it eliminates the two electrolytes equally. On the other hand, with tiacids this ratio is less than one (with a greater excretion of K+ than Na+), and with spironolactone it is greater than one (with a lower excretion of K+ than Na+). 26 There is an association between urine volume and Na+ concentration in the urine. This is logical, considering that the action mechanism of a great number of diuretics on the market is by decreasing the reabsorption of this ion, which induces osmosis Inhibitor Library of water out of the organism.26 The isolation and chemical characterization of the compounds present in different endemic species

of the geranium gender found in the State of Hidalgo, México, showed the presence of tannins and flavonoids, mainly tuclazepam a high percentage of ellagitannins (5–16%),12 The most abundant ellagitannin

is geraniin, described as a crystalizable tannin that was isolated from Geranium thunbergii Sieg et Zucc by Okuda. 27 Hence, tannins are probably responsible for the diuretic effect of G. seemannii Peyr. The present study demonstrates the diuretic activity of the ethanolic extract of G. seemannii Peyr., which increased urinary volume and electrolyte (sodium, potassium and chloride) excretion. The diuretic pattern of the ethanolic extract was similar to that of the reference drug (furosemide), suggesting a similar mechanism of action. Further study of G. seemannii Peyr. is necessary in order to isolate the compounds present in this species, as well as identify which compounds are responsible for the diuretic effect shown by the ethanolic extract. Additionally, it is necessary to determine the mechanism or mechanisms of action involved in the diuretic effect. All authors have none to declare. The authors would like to thank the Universidad Autónoma of the State of Hidalgo and the Instituto Politécnico Nacional for their invaluable support of the present work. We thank Bruce Allan Larsen for reviewing the use of English in the manuscript. “
“Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common form of dementia is incurable, degenerative and terminal disease first described by German Neuropathologist, Alois Alzheimer in 1906 and was named after him.

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