saltans) and five (P heparinus) heparinases, were identified, wh

saltans) and five (P. heparinus) heparinases, were identified, whereas N. aromaticivorans encodes only one heparinase. Fucoidan degradation was not determined experimentally, but is assumed as both P. saltans and P. heparinus have genes selleck chemicals llc for eleven and ten ��-fucosidases respectively. In addition, 12 (P. saltans) and 18 (P. heparinus) ��-sulfatases genes were identified, whereas N. aromaticivorans contains only five ��-sulfatases and no ��-fucosidase genes. Experimental evidence for the fucoidan hydrolysis in Pedobacter has not been found, but for Mucilaginibacter paludis and M. gracilis, which are also members of the family Sphingobacteriaceae, have been experimentally confirmed to exhibit fucoidan degradation [53]. Moreover, Sakai et al. [54] reported the existence of intracellular ��-L-fucosidases and sulfatases, which enable ��F.

fucoidanolyticus�� to degrade fucoidan. Acknowledgements We would like to gratefully acknowledge the help of Helga Pomrenke (DSMZ) for growing P. saltans cultures. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program, and by the University of California, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344, and Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract No. DE-AC02-06NA25396, UT-Battelle and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725, as well as German Research Foundation (DFG) INST 599/1-2.

The genus Haemophilus belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria and is classified in the family Pasteurellaceae [12] (Table 1). A phylogenetic tree based on 16S ribosomal RNA sequences is depicted in Figure 1 for H. parasuis and related organisms. Table 1 MIGS classification and general features of H. parasuis strain 29755. Figure 1 Phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA of H. parasuis 29755 and type strains of some closely related species and other genera within the Pasteurellaceae. Also included is the only additional H. parasuis strain for which a genome sequence has been reported, … H. parasuis is a small, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium [1] (Figure 2). The presence of a capsule is variable and may affect colony and cellular morphology [30].

GSK-3 Growth of the bacterium in vitro is dependent on the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD, or V factor) [31] but, in contrast to some other members of the genus, does not require porphyrins like hemin (X factor) [32]. Plating on Casman Agar Base (BBL) supplemented with 1% (w/v) NAD (Sigma) and 5% GIBCO filtered horse serum (Invitrogen) or on chocolate agar produces small, translucent colonies that appear within 24 hours and reach full size in approximately two days. Colonies are nonhemolytic when grown on blood agar [1]. H.

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