“Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP), the active ingredient o

“Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP), the active ingredient of Tylenol, is the leading cause of drug-induced acute liver failure in the United States. As such, it is necessary

to develop novel strategies to prevent or manage APAP toxicity. In this report, we reveal a novel function of the liver X BGJ398 ic50 receptor (LXR) in preventing APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Activation of LXR in transgenic (Tg) mice or by an LXR agonist conferred resistance to the hepatotoxicity of APAP, whereas the effect of LXR agonist on APAP toxicity was abolished in LXR-deficient mice. The increased APAP resistance in LXR Tg mice was associated with increased APAP clearance, increased APAP sulfation, and decreased formation of toxic APAP metabolites. The hepatoprotective effect of LXR may have resulted from the induction of antitoxic phase II conjugating enzymes, such as Gst and Sult2a1, as well as the suppression of protoxic phase I P450 enzymes, such as Cyp3a11 and Cyp2e1. Promoter analysis suggested the mouse Gst isoforms as novel transcriptional targets of LXR. The suppression of Cyp3a11 may be accounted for by the inhibitory effect of LXR on the PXR-responsive I-BET-762 supplier transactivation of Cyp3a11. The protective effect of LXR in preventing APAP toxicity is opposite to the sensitizing effect of pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, and retinoid X receptor alpha. Conclusion: We conclude that LXR represents

a potential therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of Tylenol toxicity. (HEPATOLOGY 2011) Overdose of the analgesic and antipyretic, acetaminophen (APAP), is the leading cause of drug-induced acute liver failure.1 APAP usually is well tolerated at recommended therapeutic doses, and the majority

of APAP is rapidly metabolized by the phase II conjugating enzymes, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and sulfotransferase (SULT), in the liver to nontoxic compounds,2 which is followed by renal Fluorometholone Acetate and biliary excretion. Another metabolic pathway is bioactivation by phase I cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes to the highly reactive intermediate metabolite, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone-imine (NAPQI).3 NAPQI has a short half-life under normal conditions and is eliminated by conjugation with glutathione (GSH), a reaction carried out by glutathione S-transferase (GST), and then further metabolized to a mercapturic acid and excreted into the urine.4 In the event of APAP overdose, the glucuronidation and sulfation pathways become saturated, and increasing amounts of APAP undergo P450-mediated formation of NAPQI, as well as depletion of GSH.5 Accumulated NAPQI then binds to cellular macromolecules, leading to structural and metabolic disarray of the cells.6 Furthermore, depletion of intracellular GSH renders the hepatocytes highly susceptible to oxidative stress and apoptosis. CYP1A2, 2E1, and 3A are the most active P450s that convert APAP to NAPQI.7 Treatment with Cyp1a2 inducers increased APAP hepatotoxicity in rodents.8 Cyp2e1 was found to activate APAP to NAPQI.

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