Overall, we were unable to demonstrate a difference in


Overall, we were unable to demonstrate a difference in

survival associated with neurocART compared with non-neurocART. There are several limitations to this study. Firstly, our study may have been underpowered to detect a significant association between CPE score and overall survival. Sample size calculations estimate that we would have needed over 1000 events to this website detect a significant improvement in survival of <15%. The likely low incidence of death associated with NCI further limits the power of analysis. In APHOD, the low incidence of HAD precluded it from being analysed directly, and limited data are collected on other NCI outcomes. Although APHOD comprises relatively large multisite cohorts with good follow-up, these results flag the need for more extensive data for examination of neurocART outcomes including associated mortality. In particular, examination of mild CNS events might increase the sensitivity of analyses to general neurocART outcomes including associated mortality, subject to available data and the constraints this places on the power of analyses. Although TAPHOD does not collect these data in any standardized fashion, we are not aware of any other cohorts that do so. In this regard, the routine screening for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in relevant cohorts should be considered.

Similarly, although previous studies have identified clade-specific differences in HIV neurotoxicity [26], our

analysis Cabozantinib research buy did not specifically adjust for this. Differences in neurotoxicity by clade may potentially limit the general application of CPE as used in this analysis, and the inclusion of clade as a covariate to examine this should be considered in future analyses. Other limitations include the enrolment of patients in APHOD after the initiation of cART, and the enrolment of patients with mono/dual therapy experience prior to starting cART. To address these concerns, prior treatment experience was factored into analyses including prior treatment type, neurocART-first L-NAME HCl cART, regimen count and neurocART exposure. Of these covariates, only higher regimen counts (≥4 regimens) were found to contribute significantly to multivariate models. In summary, our findings do not show a significant overall survival benefit associated with neurocART compared with cART in a population of HIV-positive adult patients (APHOD). In particular, the potential benefit associated with neurocART in terms of prevention of neurocognitive impairment did not translate into an improvement in overall survival in this population. These findings were limited by the likely low incidence of NCI-associated mortality. Further studies and more extensive data are needed to address these limitations. “
“In this issue of the Journal of Travel Medicine, Johnson and colleagues review the risk of acquisition of hepatitis B in international travelers.

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