or siRNAs for NF kappaB We also observed that IL 1B induced PTEN

or siRNAs for NF kappaB. We also observed that IL 1B induced PTEN repression was attenuated in the presence of the IKK in hibitor or siRNAs for NF kappaB. To deter mine whether NF kappaB activity was present in AGS cells treated with IL 1B, we used a western blot to deter mine the level Enzastaurin msds of phosphorylated NF Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries kappaB p65. The level of phosphorylated NF kappaB p65 was high in AGS cells treated with IL 1B. In addition, silencing of NF kappaB inhibited miR 425 e pression in NCI N87 cells without IL 1B treatment. These results suggesting that IKK dependent NF kappaB activation upon IL 1B treat ment is required for PTEN downregulation, most likely via its enhancement of miR 425 transcription.

To determine whether NF kappaB directly regulates miR 425 transcription, we analyzed the upstream se quences of miR 425 using the WeightMatri library and identified three potential NF kappaB binding sites in the promoter region of miR 425. We performed chromatin immunoprecipita tion assays with AGS cancer cells using monoclo nal anti NF kappaB antibodies. As shown in Figure Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries 4B, only primer B of miR 425 produced strong PCR products, which suggested that the NF kappaB protein formed com ple es with the B binding site in the miR 425 promoter. The results of luciferase reporter assays suggested that the potential B binding site in the miR 425 promoter is re quired for transactivation of the downstream gene upon IL 1B induction. Induction of miR 425 promotes cell survival upon IL 1B induction It was shown that PTEN is among the most frequently inactivated tumor suppressor genes.

Overe pression of PTEN in different mammalian tissue culture cells affects various processes including cell proliferation, cell death and cell migration. We also found that inhibiting PTEN decreased the activation of caspase 3 in cells treated with IL 1B. It is plausible that miR 425 induction may inhibit apoptosis via the downregulation of PTEN in IL 1B treated cells. Indeed, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries overe pression Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of miR 425 inhibited caspase 3 activation in cisplatin treated AGS cells. Moreover, in cisplatin treated AGS cells, cotransfection of a construct containing only the PTEN coding region, which is insensitive to miR 425, bypassed the antiapoptotic effect of miR 425 overe pression. Accordingly, transfection of anti miR 425 in AGS cells significantly enhanced caspase 3 activation Entinostat and apoptosis in response to IL 1B treatment.

In addition, transfection of anti miR 425 in NCI N87 cells significantly enhanced caspase 3 activation and apoptosis without IL 1B stimulation. Consistent with its role in inhibiting caspase activation, upregulation of miR 425 substantially enhanced AGS cell proliferation, whereas promotion information the pro survival effect was com pletely blocked by co transfection with e ogenous PTEN. Anti miR 425 decreased the percentage of proliferating cells for NCI N87 cells. We also found that inhibiting PTEN had a protective effect similar to that observed in cells overe pressing miR 425, suggesting that PTEN repression

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