subsequent intracellular injection of hyperpolarizing


subsequent intracellular injection of hyperpolarizing current (−1 nA), the spike bursts of T3-DO became grouped into the normal chirp pattern, and at the same time, the motor output of fictive singing was instantaneously reconstituted (Fig. 6E). Ascending opener-interneuron A1-AO We also identified an ascending interneuron in the metathoracic ganglion complex that spiked rhythmically in phase with the wing-opener Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical activity and that was inhibited in phase with the wing-closer motoneurons. Its soma was located at the lateral margin of the first fused abdominal neuromere A1, from where its primary Proteasome inhibitor neurite ran dorsally toward the posterior border of the metathoracic neuromere (Fig. 7A). Forming a loop near the ganglion midline, the main neurite sharply bent anteriorly and the ascending axon projected through the ipsilateral connective toward the mesothoracic ganglion. Before leaving the ganglion, the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical axon gave off a side branch that ramified dorsally in the anterior metathoracic neuromere. Arising from the neurite, the main dendrite of A1-AO formed a dense meshwork of fine branches projecting anteriorly and posteriorly along the dorsal midline of the neuromeres A1 and A2. Figure 7 Structure and activity of the

ascending opener-interneuron A1-AO. (A) Cell body position and dendrites of A1-AO in the fused abdominal–metathoracic ganglion Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical complex (ventral view); the axon ascends toward the mesothoracic ganglion. (B) and (C) … During fictive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical singing, the membrane potential of A1-AO

depolarized by 4–8 mV in each opener phase and hyperpolarized by 4–5 mV in phase with the closer-motoneuron activity (Fig. 7B). Every depolarization gave rise to a burst of 3–6 action potentials with an instantaneous spike frequency of 140–180 Hz. During each syllable, A1-AO fired its first spike 7.5 ± 1.1 msec (mean ± SD; N = 1, n = 50) before the first spike of the wing-opener motoneuron activity and 31.2 ± 1.2 msec (mean ± SD; N = 1, n = 50) before the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical first spike of the wing-closer activity. During the chirp intervals, the neuron spiked tonically at a rate of 100–120 Hz. This tonic background activity might result from a slightly elevated membrane potential due to the microelectrode penetration. Constant hyperpolarizing current injection in the why dendrite of A1-AO completely prevented tonic spiking during the chirp intervals and also reduced the rhythmic spike activity during chirps (Fig. 7C). The spike activity reduction in A1-AO did not affect the singing motor pattern and neither strong depolarizing nor hyperpolarizing current pulses reset the chirp rhythm of fictive singing. Closer interneurons While recording in the abdominal neuromeres, we encountered considerably more often opener interneurons than closer interneurons. Nevertheless, in 12 crickets, we recorded interneurons whose rhythmic spike activity was strictly coupled to the closer phase of fictive singing.

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