mutans reduced production of GtfB and -D as revealed

by W

mutans reduced production of GtfB and -D as revealed

by Western blotting, but the ropA-mutant formed more than 50% more biofilms than the parental strain when sucrose was provided as the supplemental carbohydrate source [48]. During characterization of GbpA of S. mutans, the Banas group showed that strains deficient in GbpA were more adherent in vitro and more cariogenic in vivo than the parental strain [11, 12]. As compared to the biofilms by the parent strain, which were composed of big cellular clusters with large gaps in between, the biofilms formed by the gbpA – mutant were relatively small, but more compact and more evenly distributed. Interestingly, GbpA-deficiency was later found to increase the frequency of recombination Dactolisib nmr between the tandemly arranged, highly homologous gtfB and gtfC genes, resulting in a dramatic decrease in production of water-insoluble

glucans. Additional experiments that probe the basis for altered gtf and gbp expression, coupled with measurements of Gtf and Gbp protein and activity and glucan structure will be needed to shed light on the basis for the observations. Conclusions In vitro dual-species biofilm model and RealTime-PCR analysis showed that biofilm formation and virulence expression by S. mutans could be altered in response to the presence of other oral bacterial species. Effort is currently directed to further investigation of the underlying mechanism of the altered expression of selected genes and the impact of such alterations on biofilm formation Rho by S. mutans. Considering the frequent association of L. casei and S. mutans in carious sites and their role in caries development, information yielded from these studies could be used to formulate novel strategies against human dental caries. Acknowledgements This

work is supported by NIDCR grants DE13239 and 12236 to RAB and in part by DE15501 and DE19452 to ZTW. We thank Mr. Christopher Browngardt for his kind help with statistical analysis. References 1. Jenkinson HF, Lamont RJ: Oral microbial communities in sickness and in health. Trends Microbiol 2005,13(12):589–595.PubMedCrossRef 2. Kolenbrander PE, Andersen RN, Blehert DS, Egland PG, Adriamycin cell line Foster JS, Palmer RJ Jr: Communication among oral bacteria. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2002,66(3):486–505. table of contentsPubMedCrossRef 3. Kuramitsu HK, He X, Lux R, Anderson MH, Shi W: Interspecies interactions within oral microbial communities. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2007,71(4):653–670.PubMedCrossRef 4. Kreth J, Zhang Y, Herzberg MC: Streptococcal antagonism in oral biofilms: Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii interference with Streptococcus mutans . J Bacteriol 2008,190(13):4632–4640.PubMedCrossRef 5. Rosan B, Lamont RJ: Dental plaque formation. Microbes Infect 2000,2(13):1599–1607.PubMedCrossRef 6.

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