Monkeys performed a selective attention task A trial started whe

Monkeys performed a selective attention task. A trial started when the monkey touched a bar and directed its gaze within 0.7° of the fixation spot. After ∼1.5 s, an attentional cue appeared. The cue was followed after ∼0.75 s by two drifting grating stimuli, where one stimulus was cued as the target stimulus and one as the distractor stimulus. The monkey had to release the bar between 150 and 650 ms after a change in color of the target stimulus.

The phase of each spike was determined by frequency decomposition of the LFP around each spike. We averaged the phases obtained from the LFPs recorded on all electrodes, except the electrode from which the spike was obtained. Up to four LFPs were recorded simultaneously. The strength of spike-LFP phase-locking was quantified by the PPC, which is unbiased by the number of spikes (Vinck et al., 2010a and Vinck et al., 2012). This work was supported by Human Frontier Science Program Organization grant RGP0070/2003 (P.F.),

The Volkswagen Foundation Grant I/79876 (P.F.), the European Science Foundation European Young Investigator Award Program (P.F.), the European Union (HEALTH-F2-2008-200728 to P.F.), the LOEWE program (“Neuronale Koordination Forschungsschwerpunkt Frankfurt” to P.F.), the Smart Mix Programme of the Netherlands Ministry of Economic Affairs and the Netherlands Ministry of Education, Culture and Resminostat Science (BrainGain to P.F.), The Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research grants 452-03-344 (P.F.) and 016-071-079 GSK2118436 ic50 (T.W.), the National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program (R.D.), and National Institutes

of Health grant R01-EY017292 (R.D.). We thank J.H. Reynolds, A.E. Rorie, A.F. Rossi, and R.C. Saunders for help during the experiments. “
“Dopamine and serotonin have both long been implicated in behavioral control and decision-making. One central idea is that these neurotransmitters are involved in learning from reinforcement. This theory is most strongly supported by experimental findings on dopamine, where notable progress has been made in the last two decades. Groundbreaking electrophysiological studies showed that dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain increase firing to outcomes that exceed expectations (Fiorillo et al., 2003 and Schultz et al., 1997). Advances in theoretical modeling then envisioned phasic dopamine responses as a reinforcement signal, “stamping in” successful operant responses (Frank et al., 2004, Houk et al., 1995, Montague et al., 1996 and Suri and Schultz, 1999). Pharmacological and fMRI studies in humans support this idea, showing that dopaminergic drugs enhance relative learning from reward compared to punishments in both healthy individuals (Cools et al., 2009) and patients with Parkinson’s disease (Cools et al., 2006 and Frank et al., 2004).

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