Methods The study was conducted from January 2007 to December 200

Methods The study was conducted from January 2007 to December 2008 as part of an effort to control and prevent viral hepatitis in the province. Four vulnerable or at risk population groups were identified for this cross-sectional study. These selleck Oligomycin A included IV drug users, prisoners, security personnel and healthcare workers. Health Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries care workers were included in high risk groups due to higher exposure to hepatitis patients, routinely reported needle prick injuries and low uptake of hepatitis vaccine. This group is of particular importance because, infected health care workers can transmit the infection to uninfected patients admitted to hospital, which can further spread the disease in society.

We Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries compiled a database of prisoners in Landhi Jail, health care workers of the Civil Hospital Karachi, IDUs registered by the Referral Laboratory of Sindh AIDS Control Program and security personnel from a large private company. A unique identification number was assigned to all individuals in this database. A computerized program was run to generate a random sample of the individuals Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries included in this database. All identified individuals were then approached for a detailed interview and blood sample collection. The response rate was 83% in this study with a total of 4202 individuals included in this analysis. We estimated the sample size to measure a 2% difference of hepatitis prevalence (assuming 4% prevalence) [5,6] between groups at 0.05 significance level using a two-sided comparison and the power of 90%. Sample size was computed for both the chi-squared test using Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the Yates�� continuity correction and Fisher Exact test.

A sample of 3252 participants was the minimum number required to be accrued in order Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries to perform this survey. Among HCWs, only staff from exposure-prone procedures (EPP) was included in the study. These included intensive care unit staff, surgeons, nursing staff, phlebotomists, doctors, nurses and other paramedical staff providing direct care to the patient. Demographic information Entinostat of screened people was recorded along with history of risk factors. A team of laboratory workers was deputed to collect samples from these groups. All samples were taken after obtaining the informed consent. Consent was also obtained from the institutional heads with assurance of confidentiality and provision of treatment from the hepatitis control program. The study protocol was reviewed and approved by an independent ethics committee. Sample collection was carried out at different sites for the groups as indicated. Five milliliter of venous blood was collected in gel vaccutainer tubes (yellow top) using aseptic technique. Blood samples were transported to the designated lab for further processing.

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