\n\nMethods: Data on infection control policies, structural characteristics, and MDRO
rates were collected through a 2010 survey of California infection control departments. Bivariate and multivariable Poisson and negative binomial regressions were conducted.\n\nResults: One hundred eighty hospitals provided data (response rate, 54%). Targeted MRSA screening upon admission was reported by the majority of hospitals (87%). The majority of hospitals implemented contact precautions for confirmed MDRO and C difficile patients; presumptive isolation/contact precautions for patients with pending screens were less frequently implemented. Few infection control policies were associated with Selleck BMS345541 lower MDRO rates. Hospitals with a certified infection control director had AZD0530 molecular weight significantly lower rates of MRSA bloodstream infections (P < .05).\n\nConclusion: Although most California hospitals are involved in activities to decrease MDRO, there is variation in specific activities utilized with the most focus placed on MRSA. This study
highlights the importance of certification and its significant impact on infection rates. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings. Copyright (C) 2012 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Turfgrass systems represent one major group of intensively managed ecosystems and a potential carbon (C) sink. Turfgrass management practices critically influence C inputs to soil, soil microbial dynamics, C59 Wnt cost and in turn soil C and nitrogen (N) balance. However, how management practices influence soil organic C and microbial dynamics in turfgrass systems is not well understood. We investigated the effect of management duration and intensities on soil microbial biomass, microbial
activities and soil organic C contents in two golf courses dominated by Bermuda grass near Raleigh, NC, USA. In Hope Valley, two fairways were studied under the same management scheme but for a huge difference in duration (10 vs. 80 years). Whereas, in Treyburn, rough, fairway, and tee areas that were constructed in the same year but received different N and water inputs, and with different cutting frequencies were examined. Results showed conversion of a pine forest to turfgrass course reduced soil microbial biomass, microbial activities and soil organic C. Long term turfgrass planting accumulated soil organic C and N at rates of 71.9 and 10.6 g m(-2) y(-1) over 80 years. Moderate management intensity resulted in highest soil organic C and microbial biomass C.