MCI is considered above all to be a prodrome of Alzheimer’s disea

MCI is considered above all to be a prodrome of Alzheimer’s disease and, variably, of other dementias. MCI criteria refer to poor cognitive functioning as assessed at one point in time, thus precluding an appreciation of decline over time; it is thus difficult to differentiate from cohort

effects, low IQ, and education. Later definitions by Petersen et al7 refined the initial concept by referring to memory impairment beyond that expected for both age and education level This has been the working definition adopted by most epidemiological studies. The definition of MCI has been developed within a Perifosine supplier clinical setting. As such, the definition represents a minimal set of distinguishing criteria, the diagnosis resting largely Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical on the overall clinical picture. Validation of the criteria has been in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical terms of their capacity to predict conversion to dementia and/or Alzheimer’s disease. The two are often used interchangeably, which has led to some confusion in the comparison of results across centers. Table I 7,11-18 shows the predictive value of MCI criteria within a clinical setting. Conversion rates to dementia are also noted for some studies. The conversion rate from

MCI to dementia in clinical samples is reported at between 10% and 20%, regardless of age. Together, these studies suggest the predictive validity of the concept within a clinical setting. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical These studies are all, however, based on clinical series conducted in specialist Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical centers, so it is not certain to what extent they represent all cases of MCI found in the general population. Clinical signs and symptoms beyond those cited in the official MCI criteria have also been used for diagnosis, so there is likely to be some differences in case identification between centers. While these studies together suggest the high predictive validity of the concept within a clinical setting, they are unable to provide us with information

on prevalence Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and incidence. To date, only a small number of general population studies have been conducted using MCI criteria, giving a range of prevalence estimations from 3% to 19%. There are significant differences in sampling frames, cognitive tests, and drop-out due to mortality Parvulin and refusal between these studies; nonetheless, the majority of authors report rates of around 3% when MCI criteria are strictly applied (Table II).9-24 Subjects in three of the studies reporting higher rates21-23 have received extensive clinical examinations as well as cognitive testing, which may have led to the inclusion of subjects on the basis of clinical criteria beyond those stipulated in the definition of MCI. In three studies,19-21 the authors conclude in their discussion that the criteria are too strict and a large number of subjects are subsequently excluded who would be considered by clinicians as a high-risk group.

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