mallei and B. pseudomallei [2, 9, 16–18, 22, 41, 43–49]. Several gene products, such as BimA, type 3 secretion system effectors, and type 6 secretion proteins, have been shown to play key roles in this process. By contrast, the mechanisms used by these organisms to adhere to eukaryotic cells are poorly defined. Adherence is an essential step of pathogenesis by most infectious agents because it is necessary for colonizing a new host [50–52]. Moreover, B. pseudomallei and B. this website mallei are facultative intracellular pathogens that gain access to the interior
of target cells. Though not always a prerequisite for this process, bacterial adherence is a widespread strategy that precedes and promotes invasion [50–52]. Thus far, only the B. pseudomallei flagellum  and type 4 pilus  have been implicated in adherence and their exact roles remain to be elucidated. The present study reports the identification of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei gene products that mediate adherence to epithelial cells derived from the LY2835219 human respiratory tract, thus relevant to the aerosol route of infection by these organisms. Results Identification of a gene shared by B. mallei and B. pseudomallei that
encodes a potential autotransporter adhesin Analysis of the annotated genomic sequence of B. mallei ATCC23344 identified the ORF locus tag number BMAA0649 as resembling members of the oligomeric coiled-coil adhesin (Oca) family of autotransporter proteins . Yersinia find more enterocolitica YadA [55–57] is the prototypical member of this group of adherence factors, which also includes Haemophilus influenzae Hia [58–60] and Fenbendazole Moraxella catarrhalis Hag [61, 62]. These Oca proteins share structural
features including a C-terminal outer membrane (OM) anchor domain composed of 4 β-strands (also referred to as the transporter module), a surface-exposed passenger domain often containing repeated amino acid (aa) motifs, and a helical region of ~40 residues that connects the OM anchor to the surface-exposed passenger domain [55, 63–65]. As illustrated in Fig 1A, BMAA0649 is predicted to possess these features. Further sequence analysis of the B. mallei ATCC23344 gene product revealed that residues 208-362 (and 1010-1149) contain repeats with the consensus xxxAVAIGxx[N/A]xAx (open circles in Fig 1A), which resemble motifs found in the N-terminus of Y. enterocolitica YadA (xxxSVAIGxxSxAx) [56, 57] and M. catarrhalis Hag (GxxSIAIGxx[A/S]xAx) . In YadA, these AIG patterns have been shown to form a structure termed a β-roll and to specify adhesive properties. The passenger domain of BMAA0649 was also found to contain several serine-rich repeats beginning with residues SLST (colored squares in Fig 1A). Additionally, searches using the Pfam database indicated that aa 1456-1535 of BMAA0649 encode a YadA-like C-terminal domain (PF03895; expect value 3.