In this case, aptamer can be used both for recognition and as a substrate of signal amplification (Figure 5). The second problem may be related
to the difficulty in the designing of LAMP primers. This problem can be alleviated by using a special software, called Primer Explorer (primerexplorer.jp/e/), which is designed specifically for LAMP primers. Another problem may be related to the preparation of gold and silver nanoprobes. This step may add some complicacy in the procedure of protein detection with iLAMP-nanoprobe method. However, if the same DNA signal is used Vactosertib cost for different protein targets, the nanoprobes are the same for different proteins. This can lower the need for preparation of new nanoprobes for every protein target. Importance of the hypothesis The proposed method buy Smoothened Agonist can find various applications in the field of protein detection science. Due to ultra-high specificity and sensitivity of iLAMP, it can be used for detection of proteins with ultra-low concentrations (hardly detectable with common immunoassay methods), which is of high importance. These proteins include cancer biomarkers, viral proteins, toxins,
hormones, allergens, pollutants, and small non-protein molecules (can be detected by aptamer-LAMP version) . The proposed method can also be used for the detection of the surface antigens of different cells. In this case, particular antigens can be used to specifically detect the target cells for various purposes. Stem cells, rare circulating cells, such as circulating tumor  and fetal cells , and different subtypes of particular cells  can be Lonafarnib easily detected using different
configurations of iLAMP. The ultra-high sensitivity and specificity of iLAMP method allows one to identify many diseases as early as possible. This issue has a great importance in the case of lethal diseases like cancer due to the fact that early detection can increase the chance of successful treatments  (Figure 6). Figure 6 Possible applications of iLAMP technique. Summary and future perspectives With the application of iLAMP method, many technical problems of current nucleic acid-based methods for protein detection can be avoided. This new method thus can find many potential applications in detecting low-concentration proteins that are vital for monitoring human diseases and pathological states in the human body. In conclusion, considering the rapidness, simplicity, and affordability with no need for expert personnel and specific instrument, iLAMP method can be an important alternative in point-of-care diagnostic technique, particularly in low-resource laboratories. Acknowledgements This work is funded by Iran National Science Foundation, Iranian Nanotechnology 7-Cl-O-Nec1 cost Initiative, and grant 2011–0014246 of the National Research Foundation of Korea. References 1. Protein function [http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/protein-function-14123348] Accessed 18 September 2013 2.