In some cellular investigations, moreover, a real-time microscopi

In some cellular investigations, moreover, a real-time microscopic observation is required. The point-to-point observation in conventional static cell cultures ref 1 might not meet the demand unless a small scale microscope-compatible incubator is used.In order to establish a stable culture environment Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries for cellular assays, a perfusion cell culture format is promising because it can continuously provide nutrient supply and waste removal to a cell culture system, and hence keep the culture environment more stable Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries [5,6]. This contributes to a more stable, and thus a more quantifiable extracellular condition, which is found particularly valuable for a precise cellular assay. With the recent progress in microfabrication and microfluidic technology, microfluidic systems have been progressively used as versatile perfusion cell culture tools for various research purposes [3,7,8].
Microfluidic perfusion cell culture systems not only largely reduce the need for experimental resources but also could bring several inherent niche improvements (e.g., providing a more in vivo-like culture environment [9]), which have been well reviewed previously [10]. More recently, some Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries microfluidic perfusion cell culture systems [11�C14] have been proposed for real-time microscopic observation of cellular images.In designing a microfluidic perfusion cell culture system for real-time microscopic observation of cellular activities, the mechanisms of culture medium pumping, and thermal control are crucial.
The ability to precisely transport and to manipulate a tiny amount of fluid in a microfluidic-based cell culture system is important for medium perfusion, delivery of tested chemicals, or creation of specific Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries microenvironments to the cultured cells. Liquid delivery in microfluidic cell culture systems is commonly achieved by the use of commercially available syringe or peristaltic pumps. However, these lab-scale pumps are bulky, which could thus hamper their integration with the miniaturized cell culture systems. With the rapid development of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and microfluidic technology, micro-scale liquid pumping devices with various mechanical, or non-mechanical actuation mechanisms have been Cilengitide extensively investigated. Among them, the utilization of a pneumatically-actuated, membrane-based micropump, first proposed by Unger and co-workers [15], offers several advantageous features, particularly the simplicity in fabrication and operation, download the handbook and the ease in integrating into a microfluidic system.

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