In each case, OPN deletion decreased albuminuria, mesangial area,

In each case, OPN deletion decreased albuminuria, mesangial area, and glomerular collagen IV, fibronectin and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in the diabetic mice compared with their respective controls. In cultured mouse mesangial cells, TZDs but not insulin decreased

angiotensin II-induced OPN expression, while recombinant OPN upregulated TGF-beta, ERK/MAPK, and JNK/MAPK signaling. These studies show that OPN expression in DN mouse models enhances glomerular damage, likely through the expression of TGF-beta, while its deletion protects against disease progression, suggesting that OPN might serve as a therapeutic target. Kidney International (2010) 77, 588-600; doi:10.1038/ki.2009.518; published online 3 February 2010″
“OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the usefulness of motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring LXH254 price and mapping in arteriovenous malformation surgery.

METHODS: Intraoperative MEP monitoring was performed in 21 patients whose AVMs were located near the motor area or fed by arteries related to the corticospinal tract to detect blood flow insufficiency and/or Selleck BAY 63-2521 direct injury to the corticospinal tract and/or to map the motor area.

RESULTS: In 4 of 16 patients monitored for blood flow insufficiency, the MEP changed intraoperatively. In 2 patients, the changes were attributable to temporary occlusion

of the feeding artery (anterior choroidal or lenticulostriate artery): 1 patient had a venous infarction around the internal capsule caused by thrombosis of the draining vein and the other

bled intraoperatively from the nidus. In 17 patients, the MEP was monitored to rule out direct injury. In 1 patient, the MEP changed on coagulation Digestive enzyme of fragile vessels around the nidus in the precentral gyrus; it recovered after coagulation was discontinued. In 1 of 5 patients with MEP changes, the MEP did not recover; permanent hemiparesis developed in this patient because of venous infarction. In 1 of 11 patients subjected to MEP mapping of the motor area, we found translocation to the postcentral sulcus.

CONCLUSION: In arteriovenous malformation surgery, MEP monitoring facilitates the detection of blood flow insufficiency and/or direct injury of the corticospinal tract and mapping of the motor area. It contributes to reducing the incidence of postoperative motor paresis.”
“BACKGROUND: Although anterior fixation of the axis is not commonly performed, plate fixation of C2 is an important technique for treating select upper cervical traumatic injuries and is also useful in the surgical management of spondylosis.

OBJECTIVE: To report the technique and outcomes of C2 anterior plate fixation for a series of patients in which the majority presented with symptomatic degenerative spondylosis.

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