In a recent study, the widths of lateral ventricles (frontal horn

In a recent study, the widths of lateral ventricles (frontal horns) were monitored with TCS in 37 patients with intraventricular hemorrhage [46]. The authors reported a cut-off value for increase of lateral ventricular width of 5.5 mm that yielded high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (83%) in combination with a 100% negative predictive value for reopening of the external ventricular

or lumbar drainage. In conclusion, TCS can be regarded as a reliable tool for monitoring the midline shift, as well as the ventricular width in patients with acute supratentorial brain lesions who have adequate acoustic bone windows (>80% of patients). In many neurological and neurosurgical departments with appropriate expertise in neurosonology, TCS is already today routinely used for Etoposide clinical trial this purpose. Becker et al. [47] were the first to describe the TCS finding of SN hyperechogenicity in PD patients (Fig. 2). In the past decade, this finding has been confirmed by a number of independent groups MG-132 ic50 [23], [24], [25], [27], [28],

[48], [49], [50], [51], [52], [53] and [54]. This TCS finding, present in about 90% of PD patients at cross-section is independent from PD duration and severity [55] and [56], and was found to be stable in a 5-year follow-up study of PD patients [57]. Also there was no correlation found between the degree of SN hyperechogenicity and the striatal uptake of N-omega-fluoropropyl-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-4-[(123)I]iodophenyl-nortropane (FP-CIT) on SPECT, which is thought to represent a correlate for the degeneration of presynaptic dopaminergic neurons in PD [58]. These

findings indicate that SN hyperechogenicity is not a correlate of the progressive degeneration of SN neurons. However, a close correlation between SN echogenicity Megestrol Acetate and tissue iron content has been shown in post-mortem studies of human brains [59], suggesting that SN hyperechogenicity in PD is at least in part, caused by an elevated iron content of the SN. Also in a number of other neurodegenerative disorders TCS was demonstrated to detect accumulation of trace metals (iron, copper, manganese) in the basal ganglia with higher sensitivity than MRI supporting the idea that TCS can display trace metal accumulation in deep brain structures [59], [60], [61] and [62]. On the other hand, increased iron content alone cannot be the only explanation for SN hyperechogenicity since iron accumulates over time in the SN of PD patients, and other iron-rich brain structures, such as red nucleus or globus pallidus internus normally show no increased echogenicity on TCS [2]. Therefore, additional factors, such as abnormal iron–protein bindings were proposed to contribute to SN hyperechogenicity [59].

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