“High levels of intraspecific variability are often associ

“High levels of intraspecific variability are often associated with HAB species, and this variability is likely an important factor in their competitive success. Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) Hada ex Y. Hara et M. Chihara is an ichthyotoxic raphidophyte capable

of forming dense surface-water blooms in temperate coastal regions throughout the world. We isolated four strains of H. akashiwo from fish-killing northern Puget Sound blooms in 2006 and 2007. By assessing numerous aspects of biochemistry, physiology, and toxicity, we were able to describe distinct ecotypes VX-770 that may be related to isolation location, source population, or bloom timing. Contrasting elements among strains were cell size, maximum growth and photosynthesis rates, tolerance of low salinities, amino acid use, Selleckchem BMS-777607 and toxicity to the ciliate grazer Strombidinopsis acuminatum (Fauré-Fremiet). In addition, the rDNA sequences and chloroplast genome of each isolate were examined, and while all rDNA sequences were identical, the chloroplast genome identified differences among the strains that

tracked differences in ecotype. H. akashiwo strain 07A, which was isolated from an unusual spring bloom, had a significantly higher maximum potential photosynthesis rate (28.7 pg C · cell−1 · h−1) and consistently exhibited the highest growth rates. Strains 06A and 06B were not genetically distinct from one another and were able to grow

on the amino acids glutamine and alanine, while the other two strains could not. Strain 07B, which is genetically distinct from the other three strains, exhibited the only nontoxic effect. Thus, molecular tools may support identification, tracking, and prediction of strains and/or ecotypes using distinctive chloroplast gene signatures. “
“This study provides the first morphological features of resting cysts of Cochlodinium polykrikoides collected from Korean coastal sediments. Evidence for the existence of resting cysts of C. polykrikoides is based on the morphological and CYTH4 molecular phylogenetic data of the germinated cells and a resting cyst. The morphology of the resting cysts differed from that reported previously in sediments and culture experiments. The distinct feature is that the cyst body was covered by the reticulate ornaments and spines. “
“The diatoms (Bacillariophyta) from a coastal lagoon from the Diablas wetlands (Isla Isabela, the Galápagos Islands) were studied in material from surface samples and a sediment core spanning the past 2,700 years in order to examine evidence of diatom evolution under geographic isolation. The total number of taxa found was ∼100. Ultrastructural variation in valve morphology between members of Galápagos taxa was used to describe 10 species from the genus Navicula sensu stricto, which are new to science.

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