For PAR, OGG1-positive nuclei, and OGG1-positive cytoplasm, agree

For PAR, OGG1-positive nuclei, and OGG1-positive cytoplasm, agreement of the respective pattern with tumor incidences appeared less striking (see Fig. 2). With

a more detailed histopathological examination using a multiple-step section approach with at least 60 slides per lung for tumor evaluation (Kolling et al., 2008), concordance of the data patterns between marker Daporinad mouse expression and tumor incidence was even more striking including, in addition, PAR-positive nuclei (data not shown). In the present study, we provided evidence that immunohistochemical detection and quantification of different genotoxicity markers in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded rat lung tissue samples is a suitable methodological approach to determine local genotoxicity in situ in the lung after particle exposure, even in a retrospective manner. Up to now, only few methods are available for detecting local genotoxicity in lung tissue after MNP exposure, for example Comet assay and micronucleus assay, both of which involve certain limitations regarding applicability

and informative value. Comet assay, which mostly uses single-cell suspensions from whole lung tissue, is unable to differentiate between cell types and to display localization of DNA damage within the tissue. In addition, Comet assay requires living cells/tissue and is therefore not applicable for retrospective studies. Micronucleus assay, on the other hand, can theoretically be performed on fixed and embedded lung tissue by DNA staining, but induction of micronuclei

requires cell proliferation and is restricted to dividing cell populations. This assay DZNeP supplier thus might underestimate DNA damage when applied to whole lung tissue and its informative value is limited to clastogenic and aneugenic genotoxic effects, without identifying detailed types of DNA damage. Oxidative DNA base lesions also cannot be detected by micronucleus assay. Immunohistochemical in situ detection and quantification Methamphetamine of genotoxic insults in fixed lung tissue thus could be a step forward in the investigation of potential genotoxic modes of action of MNP, even in a retrospective manner, if a meaningful panel of genotoxicity markers with different degrees of informative value is used. In the present study, we therefore analyzed the applicability of this methodological approach and the usefulness and informative value of various well known markers of genotoxic stress. As described in the following, all these markers have specific advantages and disadvantages, but overall, some of them are quite useful in better understanding the processes involved in genotoxicity. Given that particle-induced tumor development involves genotoxic events and based on the tumor data, one would expect clearly enhanced numbers of PAR-positive nuclei in particle treated animals, as PAR indicates an early response to DNA strand-break induction.

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