Dichotic listening tasks present multistable stimuli consisting o

Dichotic listening tasks present multistable stimuli consisting of two different consonant-vowels (CVs, one/ear). For each trial one ear usually conveys the dominant percept. We used EEG to measure neural activity before and after dichotic stimulus presentation to compare activity among left vs. right ear percepts and

a control task. Consonant-vowels were perceived more often to the right vs. left ear. Pre-stimulus EEG power in the beta band (16-20 Hz) increased for left compared to right ear percepts and control trials. Event-related potentials after stimulus onset showed smaller P50 amplitudes (similar to 50 ms latency) for left ear compared to right ear and control trials. Results indicate that neural activity for right DNA Damage inhibitor ear percepts is comparable to control conditions, while activity for the atypical left ear percept differs before and after stimulus onset. H 89 Pre-stimulus EEG changes for left ear percepts may indicate a mechanism of spontaneous fluctuations in cortical networks that bias attentional competition during subsequent sensory processing. The P50 amplitude differences among perceived ears suggests that rapid sensory and/or arousal-related activities contribute

to the content of conscious perception, possibly by biasing attentional competition away from the dominant right ear channel. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A multiplex real-time PCR assay was developed to detect and quantify the Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genotypic mixture present in infected plants. CTV isolate

FS627, a complex Florida isolate containing T36, T30 and VT genotypes and its aphid transmitted subisolates was used. The relative quantitative assay was carried out using specific primers and probes developed from the genotypes of three CTV virus isolates Angiogenesis inhibitor and included the coat protein region of isolate T36 and the 5′ end, ORF la and ORF 2 region of isolates T36, T30 and VT. Among the three genotypes present in the aphid transmitted subisolates, the T30 genotype showed higher overall relative quantitation in all specific regions compared to other isolates. The profiles of the some aphid transmitted subisolates were different from the parent source from which they transmitted. The 2(-Delta Delta Ct) method (the amount of target, normalized to an endogenous control and relative to a calibrator) was used to analyze the relative titers of the three reference genotypes in the aphid transmitted plants infected with FS627. This protocol enabled assessments of CTV genetic diversity in the aphid transmitted subisolates. This simple quantitative assay was sensitive, efficient, and took less time than other existing methods. This relative quantitative assay will be a reliable tool for diagnosis, detection and genetic diversity studies on CTV. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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