An attempt was made to evaluate the encapsulation of hepatitis E

An attempt was made to evaluate the encapsulation of hepatitis E virus neutralizing epitope (NE) region and hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) in liposomes as DNAs, proteins and DNA + protein. Mice groups were immunized with different liposome-encapsulated formulations and monitored for anti-HEV and anti-HBs titres. IgG subtypes, antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine levels. The protective levels of anti-HBs and in vitro virus-binding capacity of anti-HEV antibodies were assessed. Liposome-encapsulated DNA either singly

or in combination did not elicit antibody response. Anti-HEV and anti-HBs IgG titres of individual component of protein alone (Lipo-E-P/Lipo-B-P) or DNA + protein formulations Selleckchem Adavosertib (Lipo-E-DP/Lipo-B-DP) were comparable to respective titres in combination vaccine of protein (Lipo-BE-P) and DNA + protein formulations (Lipo-BE-DP). IgG1 levels were significantly higher in Lipo-BE-P group whereas, equivalent THZ1 in vitro levels of IgG1 and IgG2a were observed in Lipo-BE-DP group against both components of the vaccine. Combination vaccine group showed mixed Th1/Th2 cytokine profile. Liposome entrapped NE and HBsAg in protein and DNA + protein

formats induce excellent immune response to both the components and need to be evaluated in higher animals. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: The National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) limits health care associated occupational exposures to radiation to 5000 mrem/y. Previous studies suggested that emergency physicians were not exposed over this limit. Their relevance to contemporary practice is unknown. We hypothesized that emergency physicians are currently exposed to radiation levels above the NCRP limits.\n\nMethods: This prospective cohort study was conducted

at an urban, academic, level 1 trauma center emergency department (ED). Thermoluminescent dosimeter radiation badges were placed on the torso and ring finger of all physicians staffing the ED during May 2008. Thermoluminescent dosimeter badges were affixed to 8 portable phones that are carried by physicians in the ED 24 hours a day. At the end of the study period, exposure dose for each subject was estimated.\n\nResults: Seventy-five Navitoclax physicians enrolled in the study; 41 residents worked a median of 94 hours and 34 attendings worked a median of 54 hours. Compliance for physician badge wearing was 99%, ring wearing was 98%, and phone wearing was 100%. Two subjects had detectable levels of radiation on their torso thermoluminescent dosimeters of 4 and I mrem, respectively. One phone badge had a detectable level of 1 mrem. The annual extrapolated exposure for the subject with the highest radiation level would have been 50 mrem, below the 5000 mrem exposure limit for health care workers.

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