Addressing a stainless-type glass-forming Fe50Cr15Mo14C15B6 alloy and using a combination of complementary high-resolution analytical techniques, we relate near-atomistic insights into increasingly inhomogeneous nanostructures with time-and element-resolved dissolution behavior. The progressive elemental partitioning on the nanoscale determines the degree of passivation. A detrimental transition from Cr-controlled passivity to Mo-controlled breakdown is dissected atom
by atom, demonstrating the importance of nanoscale knowledge for understanding corrosion.”
“Icosahedral order has been suggested as the prevalent PRT062607 atomic motif of supercooled liquids and metallic glasses for more than half a century, because the icosahedron is highly close-packed but is difficult to grow, owing to structure frustration and the lack of translational periodicity. By means of angstrom-beam electron diffraction of single icosahedra, we report experimental observation of local icosahedral order in metallic glasses. All the detected icosahedra were found to be distorted with partially face-centered cubic symmetry, presenting compelling evidence on geometric frustration of local icosahedral order in metallic glasses.”
systematic, efficient means of producing diverse libraries of asymmetrically branched N-glycans is needed to investigate the specificities and biology of glycan-binding proteins. To that end, we describe a core pentasaccharide that at potential branching positions is modified BIBW2992 molecular weight by orthogonal protecting groups to allow selective attachment of specific saccharide moieties
by chemical glycosylation. The appendages were selected so that the antenna of the resulting deprotected compounds could be selectively extended by glycosyltransferases to give libraries of asymmetrical multi-antennary glycans. The power of the methodology was demonstrated by the preparation of a series of complex oligosaccharides that were printed as microarrays and screened HSP90 for binding to lectins and influenza-virus hemagglutinins, which showed that recognition is modulated by presentation of minimal epitopes in the context of complex N-glycans.”
“Histocompatibility is the basis by which multicellular organisms of the same species distinguish self from nonself. Relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying histocompatibility reactions in lower organisms. Botryllus schlosseri is a colonial urochordate, a sister group of vertebrates, that exhibits a genetically determined natural transplantation reaction, whereby self-recognition between colonies leads to formation of parabionts with a common vasculature, whereas rejection occurs between incompatible colonies. Using genetically defined lines, whole-transcriptome sequencing, and genomics, we identified a single gene that encodes self-nonself and determines “”graft”" outcomes in this organism.