62 Risk of complications and mortality Multiple large epidemiologic studies have examined whether comorbid depression in patients with CHD or diabetes increases risk of mortality. A recent meta-analysis found 22 papers that examined the Sorafenib mouse association of depression with cardiovascular outcomes of patients experiencing a recent myocardial infarction (MI), defined as mortality or cardiovascular events occurring within 2 years of index MI.64 Comorbid depression was associated with an approximate 2.4-fold increase in allcause mortality, a 2.6-fold increase
in cardiovascularrelated mortality, and an almost 2.0-fold increase Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in new cardiovascular events.64 Depression has also been found across multiple studies to be a significant predictor of mortality and cardiac events in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery,65-67 as well Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as those with congestive heart failure.68 Six prospective epidemiologic studies have shown that after controlling for sociodemographic factors and clinical severity of illness, comorbid depression in patients
Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with diabetes compared with those with diabetes alone was associated with a 33% to 52% increase in risk of allcause mortality.69-74 One recent study of over 4000 patients with diabetes examined specific causes of mortality associated with depression documented with both state mortality data and careful chart review. Comorbid depression Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was associated with an approximately 50% increase in risk of all-cause morbidity, and an over twofold risk of noncancer and nonatherosclerotic associated mortality.69 A large prospective study of an aging Hispanic population found that both depression and diabetes were independently associated with
an increased risk of all-cause mortality, and when combined they had a greater than additive effect on mortality.72 Thus, lifetime depression was associated with a 1.64 (95% CI 1.17-2.28) and diabetes a 1.51 (95% CI 1.23, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 1.86) hazard ratio for allcause mortality respectively, compared with those without history of depression or diabetes.72 Patients with comorbid lifetime depression and diabetes had a hazard ratio of 4.59 (95% CI 2.12, 9.93) of all-cause mortality compared with controls without history of diabetes or depression.72 L-NAME HCl In another study that followed over 10 000 participants for 8 years, compared with those without diabetes or depression, those with depression but no diabetes had a 1.20 (95% CI 1.03, 1.40) increase in all-cause mortality, those with diabetes but no depression had a 1.88 (95% CI 1.55, 2.27) increase, and those with both depression and diabetes a 2.50 (95% CI 2.04, 3.08) increase in all-cause mortality73 In patients with diabetes, recent prospective studies have examined the association of depression with subsequent development of macrovascular and microvascular complications.