5a) At each exposure concentration, the TB reached a plateau lev

5a). At each exposure concentration, the TB reached a plateau level roughly in the exposure period from 11 to 20 min. TB showed a bell shaped relationship with a conspicuous TB elongation at 34 ppm, an increase to a maximum level at 145–279 ppm and a decrease to an approximately similar effect at 456 and 1186 ppm. The TB effect was evaluated from the period 11 to 20 min in the exposure period. In the post exposure

period, the TB effect was reversible for concentrations ≤456 ppm (Fig. 5b). TB100 was used as an estimate for NOEL of sensory irritation. This was obtained from the two lowest concentrations (34 and 145 ppm), where the increase of effect was exposure-dependent. The extrapolated TB100 value was 3.2 ppm. this website The regression line, however, had a non-significant slope (p = 0.1); thus, the value should be taken cautiously. Airflow limitation was modest at concentrations ≤456 ppm, but increased substantially at the highest (1186 ppm) exposure level ( Fig. 5c). The effect had maximum in the last 15 min of the exposure period, where the estimated NOEL (VD/VT)100 was 41 (95% CI: 5.4; 307) ppm. The effect was reversible or nearly reversible, click here except at the highest exposure concentration. TP was only elongated at the highest exposure concentration (1186 ppm). Thus, the derived RFs were 0.3 and 0.5 ppm for sensory irritation

and airflow limitation, respectively. Ozone-initiated alkene reactions in the gas-phase Neratinib supplier and on surfaces produce a host of oxygenated reaction products, both gaseous and particle-phase ultrafine particles. It has been a long-standing research question if these products would cause adverse health effects in indoor environments (Sundell et al., 1993, Weschler et al., 2006 and Wolkoff et al., 2006). This “reactive chemistry” hypothesis suggests that products of ozone-initiated alkene reactions cause health effects, such as eye and upper airway effects (nose, throat) and lower airway effects like coughing in indoor environments such as public buildings. A few field studies indicated indirectly that ozone chemistry

may play a role in symptom reporting of eye and upper respiratory irritation (Apte et al., 2008) and (Ten Brinke et al., 1998). Furthermore, it has been suggested that a number of terpene reaction products may cause sensitization in the airways (Anderson et al., 2010 and Forester and Wells, 2009). However, conflicting results about acute effects were obtained from human exposure studies. In one study, young women (n = 130) were exposed to a typical indoor VOC mixture with 23 VOCs including two terpenes (TVOC = 26 mg/m3) for two and a half hour. The mixture contained 0.125 ppm limonene and 0.16 ppm α-pinene that produced 0.03 ppm formaldehyde when mixed with ozone; the residual concentration of ozone was 0.04 ppm.

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