, 2008), tides (Dobretsov & Qian, 2006), water depth (Webster et 

, 2008), tides (Dobretsov & Qian, 2006), water depth (Webster et al., 2004), salinity and temperature (Lau et al., 2005; Chiu et al., 2006). These studies have neglected to examine the

effect that the settlement substrate has on the composition of the developing bacterial community and used artificial substrates, i.e. polystyrene dishes or glass slides only. Only two invertebrate larval settlement studies from harbour waters investigated the effect of different PLX4032 purchase substrates and showed that bacterial communities in biofilms undergo temporal shifts from more different communities during colonization and early developmental stages to more similar communities over time irrespective of the initial substrate type (Huggett et al., 2009; Chung et al., 2010). These studies were, however, limited to only

artificial substrates, i.e. glass slides coated in different chemicals to simulate different ‘wettability’ properties, deployed at one site only (Huggett et al., 2009) or subtidal biofilms on two substrates, i.e. granite and petri dishes, at one deployment time only (Chung et al., 2010). Therefore, although these studies have shed some light onto the effects of substrates on bacterial community compositions in marine biofilms, inferences on the suitability of various substrates for future studies cannot be drawn. This is especially the case for water quality bioindicator Rebamipide research, where substrates are required which on the one hand simulate or reproduce naturally occurring biofilm assemblages, but Bleomycin price on the other hand are easy to deploy and sample and provide a standardized surface. This study therefore evaluates the effects of various substrates on the bacterial community composition in biofilms from tropical coral reef ecosystems with

the aim of providing better rationale for future bioindicator studies of water quality in these types of ecosystems. The criteria for the choice of substrate include ease of handling and removal of biofilm from the substrate, standardized size and resemblance of developed bacterial communities to those found on ‘natural’ substrates. We specifically examined bacterial community compositions using the molecular fingerprinting method terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) on two ‘artificial’ substrates, i.e. ceramic tile and glass slides, which are frequently used in aquatic biofilm studies, and two ‘naturally occurring’ substrates that were collected directly from the coral reef sampling area, i.e. coral skeletons and reef sediments. Furthermore, the study extends previous knowledge by covering a more realistic time period for indicator biofilm development (i.e. 48 days), by incorporating temporal and spatial variability.

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