2006; Chakraborty et al 2009; Ozdemir et al 2009), SP (Atmaca e

2006; Chakraborty et al. 2009; Ozdemir et al. 2009), SP (Atmaca et al. 2008), PD (Kuloglu et al. 2002), and PTSD (Tezcan et al. 2003). Further, studies in populations with anxiety disorders have demonstrated increased http://www.selleckchem.com/methyltransferase.html activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), xanthine oxidase, glutathione reductase (GSR), and glutathione peroxidase (Kuloglu et al. 2002; Tezcan et al. 2003; Herken et al. 2006; Atmaca et Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical al. 2008; Ozdemir

et al. 2009). Although these effects are not consistent across all studies (Ozdemir et al. 2009; Hovatta et al. 2010), it suggests that increased levels in oxidative stress do appear in anxiety-disordered populations. Psychological stress appears to be associated with increased O&NS Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and brain region specific O&NS induced cellular damage (Hovatta et al. 2010), as demonstrated by increased superoxide production in the mitochondria of rat hippocampus and PFC under chronic mild stress (Lucca et al. 2009), and increased NO production in rat hippocampus (Harvey et al. 2004) and in rat cortex (Olivenza et al. 2000) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in a stress–restress animal model. Psychological stress (e.g., examination stress) is accompanied by an increase in inflammatory markers, lipid peroxidation, oxidative damage to DNA, and reduced antioxidant activity in the plasma (Wadee et al. 2001; Sivonova et

al. 2004). Increased stress levels (e.g., increased perceived workload) and the impossibility to cope with stress have Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical been associated with elevated 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels (Irie et al. 2005). ROS and RNS interact in a bidirectional fashion with proinflammatory cytokine signaling pathways (Hovatta et al. 2010) leading to enhanced O&NS. One example is of neopterin, which is synthesized from macrophages after stimulation by proinflammatory

cytokines (IFN-γ). Production of neopterin increases production of NO through upregulating Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression (Maes et al. 2012). Further, the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α increase superoxide production by stimulating arachidonic acid release, leading to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation (Chenevier-Gobeaux Oxalosuccinic acid et al. 2007), and activation of proinflammatory transcription factors, including nuclear factor k β (NFkβ) and the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding (CREB) family, appear to regulate the production of O&NS by modulating the activity of NOS, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), and NADPH oxidase (Hovatta et al. 2010). Alterations in activity of these particular enzymes have also been linked to anxiety behaviors. For example, enhanced anxiety resulted from the downregulation of NOS through administration of a NOS inhibitor in one study (Masood et al. 2009).

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