2 These findings are not characteristic of mice genetically null

2 These findings are not characteristic of mice genetically null for Mrp4 or Mrp312, 13, 20 and highlight the importance of ileal Ostα-Ostβ as a regulator of normal bile acid homeostasis. As might be expected with such a small bile acid pool, LY2157299 the Ostα−/− mice show less accumulation of hepatic bile acids after BDL, especially of polyhydroxylated forms. However, because obstructive cholestasis in these animals prevents bile acids from entering the intestine, there is a loss of signaling from Fgf15 and a lowering of the elevated liver levels of Shp

and FgfR4 mRNA that otherwise occur in wild-type BDL mice. Thus, Cyp7a1 and Bsep are up-regulated and the bile acid pool is increased. Fxr, Car, and Pxr are all key nuclear receptors

that participate in the adaptive response to cholestatic injury.21, 22 Car and Pxr play important roles in bile acid–detoxifying enzymes in mice and in the regulation of Mrp4 and Sult2a1.23–25 However, unlike Fxr or Pxr, we find that sham-operated and BDL Ostα-deficient mice have a significant increase in Car mRNA compared to the wild-type controls, suggesting that this nuclear receptor may play a more important regulatory role in detoxification in these mice. Our data are consistent with Car-induced Phase I (Cyp3a11, Cyp2b10) and Phase II (Sult2a1, Ugt1a1) detoxification enzymes.24, 25 Furthermore, they support the Palbociclib mw concept that this nuclear receptor can induce expression of the Phase III transporters Mrp3 and Mrp4, and provide alternative pathways for bile acid export from the liver.24 Another particularly

novel finding in this study is that in the absence of Ostα, obstructive cholestasis leads to a further increase in urinary excretion of bile acids than otherwise occurs in cholestasis. This has also been shown in mice treated with Car agonists and subjected to 24-hour BDL.24 We show that adaptive regulation of key membrane transporters in the kidney could be responsible for this change. First, in the absence Baricitinib of Ostα-Ostβ in the proximal tubule, Ostα-deficient mice cannot reabsorb the increase in urinary filtration of bile acids that occurs after BDL. Second, the renal apical uptake transporter Asbt is further decreased, and the renal apical export transporters Mrp2 and Mrp4 are both increased. Thus, bile acids are blocked from being transported back to the systemic circulation, and the limited amount that are taken up into the proximal tubule are effectively exported back out the apical membrane into the urine. This conclusion is also supported by the finding of increased urinary excretion of the Ostα-Ostβ substrates [3H]estrone 3-sulfate and [3H]dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate when administered to Ostα−/− mice.1 In summary, liver injury is attenuated in Ostα−/− mice following BDL.

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