2), complement 3 (C3), C4, CH50: lower than normal, anticardiolipin (IgG): 89 (up to 15), lupus anticoagulant: positive, antiβ2glycoprotein was negative. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and c- reactive protein (CRP) tests were done and the values were 35 mm/h and 2+respectively. The patient had headache that continued several days after
CS. It was very severe and resistant to routine medications, so magnetic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) were planned. Imaging Cyclopamine cell line Findings White and gray matter, cerebral ventricles and brain stem were normal. Distal segment of right lateral sinus and sigmoid sinus were not appeared in brain MRV (figure 1). Figure 1 Brain MRV: Distal segment Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of right lateral sinus and sigmoid sinus are not appearent. Abnormal hypersignal intensity of right lateral sinus/coronal T2 was detected. White and gray matter signal, cerebral
ventricles and brain stem were normal (figure 2). Figure 2 Brain MRI: Abnormal hypersignal intensity of right lateral sinus/coronal T2. The patient was diagnosed as SLE with secondary APS. Because of refractoriness of the headache to routine medications, thrombolytic therapy with 20 mg tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) on right sigmoid sinus and transverse sinus was performed by an interventional neurologist seven weeks after she was first hospitalized. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical After this procedure the patient’s headache improved, and she was discharged from the Hospital in a good condition. She was then prescribed 7.5 mg prednisolone, 400 mg hydroxychloroquine, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 80 mg aspirin, and 5mg warfarin. Anti coagulation therapy with warfarin was prescribed after thrombolytic therapy and has continued ever since. Her international normalized ratio (INR) has been maintained between 2.5-3. She has been visited by a rheumatologist every month, and has not any problem Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the nervous system. Duration of anticoagulation therapy is controversial and in some papers lifelong
anticoagulation therapy is recommended. Discussion Lupus-induced APS is a major risk factor for thrombosis and abortion during pregnancy. Co -morbid illnesses like pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) are also common.5 Venous thrombosis is more common than arterial thrombosis in the APS.6 The most common site of thrombosis is calf veins, but renal and hepatic veins, and retinal and cerebral sinuses may be involved. The most common site of arterial thrombosis is the cerebral vessels, ADAMTS5 but in coronary, renal and mesenteric arteries have also been noted. Brey et al. evaluated the presence of lupus anticoagulants (LAs) and anticardiolipin in 160 cases and 340 controls. After adjustment for potential confounders, the relative odds of stroke for women with an anticardiolipin of any isotype or a lupus anticoagulants was 1.87 (95% CI: 1.2 to 2.8).7 Cerebral vein thrombosis (CVT) is more common in women than in men (Female to male ratio: 3 to 1.