136 For intermediate syndrome, which is resistant to the standard

136 For intermediate syndrome, which is resistant to the standard treatment, supportive therapy and consideration of artificial respiration are recommended. For OPIDN, standard therapy should be accompanied with neuroprotective drugs like corticosteroids. Protease inhibitors have been useful in protecting the NTE and preventing the establishment of delayed neuropathy.131 #Cyclosporin A clinical trial keyword# However, further studies are required both experimentally and clinically to find out effective treatments for

severe OP poisonings. Prevention Prevention of OP poisonings is vital, and should be implemented in developing countries where OP pesticides are readily Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical available and may be used for self-poisoning.1-4 Prevention of nerve agents poisonings need different strategies, as they are used for chemical war and terrorist attacks. Organization for prohibition of chemical weapons (OPCW), which was established in 1997 in the Hague, the Netherlands has

been very effective so far as an international organization on implementation of chemical weapons convention. It is hoped that no more chemical war or terrorism Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical by the nerve agents will occur in the future. Conclusions and Recommendations Organophosphorous compounds, either as pesticides or nerve agents, have caused a considerable morbidity and mortality in the recent decades in some countries including Iran, Sri Lanka and Japan. Organophosphorous pesticides are still available in most developing countries, and may cause occupational, accidental, and intentional poisonings. Recent investigations have revealed more understanding on the basic principles of treatment, and more new medications are Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical now available for the management of OP poisonings. However, further studies are required to find out more effective treatments for the severe OP poisonings. Appropriate legislations and pesticides control, particularly OPs, which are the most commonly-used pesticides, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical are

recommended for the developing countries, especially those with poor regulations and controls. It is hoped that OPCW continue to prevent Adenylyl cyclase chemical war and terrorism using the nerve agents in the future as well. Conflict of Interest: None declared
Background: Carcinomas of esophagus, mostly squamous cell carcinomas, occur throughout the world. There are a number of suspected genetic or environmental etiologies. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is said to be a major etiology in areas with high incidence of esophageal carcinoma, while it is hardly detectable in low incidence regions. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of HPV in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases diagnosed in Pathology Department, Medical School, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.

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