05 or less) Increased detection of CCR5 over CXCR4 was seen in C

05 or less). Increased detection of CCR5 over CXCR4 was seen in CD14 cells (P < 0.05). No significant differences in CCR5 or CXCR4 expression selleck chemical were found in samples from asymptomatic women with or without chlamydial infection. Co-receptor expression confirms the potential for CD1a Langerhans cells, monocytes/macrophages and T-helper cells in the cervix as primary targets for HIV infection. Previously observed selective

transmission of CCR5-tropic isolates cannot be accounted for by a lack of CXCR4-expressing CD4 cervical immune cells. We were unable to identify any specific impact of chlamydial infection on co-receptor expression in this study. “
“The aim of the study was to determine whether the incidence of first-line treatment discontinuations and their causes changed according to the time of starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in an Italian cohort. We included in the study patients from the Italian COhort Naïve Antiretrovirals (ICoNA) who MAPK inhibitor initiated HAART when naïve to antiretroviral therapy (ART). The endpoints were discontinuation within the first year of ≥1 drug in the first

HAART regimen for any reason, intolerance/toxicity, poor adherence, immunovirological/clinical failure and simplification. We investigated whether the time of starting HAART (stratified as ‘early’, 1997–1999; ‘intermediate’, 2000–2002; ‘recent’, 2003–2007) was associated with the probability of reaching the endpoints by a survival analysis. Overall, the 1-year probability of discontinuation of ≥1 drug in the first regimen was 36.1%. The main causes of discontinuation were intolerance/toxicity (696 of 1189 patients; 58.5%) and poor adherence (285 of 1189 patients; 24%). The hazards for all-reason change were comparable according

to calendar period [2000–2002, adjusted relative hazard (ARH) 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69–0.98; 2003–2007, ARH 0.94, 95% CI 0.76–1.16, vs. 1997–1999; global P-value=0.08]. Patients who started HAART during the ‘recent’ period were less likely to change their initial regimen because of intolerance/toxicity (ARH 0.67, 95% CI 0.51–0.89 vs. ‘early’ period). Patients who started in the ‘intermediate’ and ‘recent’ periods had a higher risk of discontinuation because of simplification (ARH 15.26, 95% CI 3.21–72.45, and ARH 37.97, 95% CI 7.56–190.64, Avelestat (AZD9668) vs. ‘early’ period, respectively). It seems important to evaluate reason-specific trends in the incidence of discontinuation in order to better understand the determinants of changes over time. The incidence of discontinuation because of intolerance/toxicity has declined over time while simplification strategies have become more frequent in recent years. Intolerance/toxicity remains the major cause of drug discontinuation. Optimization of the initial highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in terms of both virological potency and tolerability is crucial for the prognosis of HIV-infected patients starting HAART [1–3].

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