Proponents of this principle would probably focus on minimizing
the number of avoidable deaths by directing the triage system to focus on the “salvageable” patients . What do we learn from this? Let us take stock. How can good-quality care be given in urgent situations, with limited resources, in an overcrowded ED? By applying a triage system, one can quickly and efficiently sort patients according to clinical priority, thus aiming Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to manage patient flow safely when clinical needs exceed capacity. The triage process happens during the period between the time patients first present in the ED and the time at which they are first seen by a doctor . Even though it is a quick and seemingly impersonal system of sorting patients, it has great impact on people and on the quality of emergency care. On the basis of the above-made principle-based analysis, we have reached some general insights into the ethical aspects of that impact. From the four principles of biomedical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical ethics (autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice), we can derive
the following areas of special attention: (1) The principle of respect for autonomy, especially in ED situations, is very difficult to assess, most particularly when urgent situations arise, as often is the case. Special attention is needed for particular ways of respecting autonomy as much as possible, for instance by appropriate Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and adequate communication during the triage process. (2) The principle of nonmaleficence is under pressure since triage can reinforce
the physical (long waiting Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical times, increasing pain and suffering, deteriorating condition) and psychological harms (stress, fear, IPA-3 purchase feeling neglected) that come with the underlying pathological conditions. (3) Aggression and violence are common phenomena in the ED. They aggravate the working conditions, impair Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical staff morale and complicate people’s abilities to make proper decisions. The principle of beneficence is compromised by the pressure upon health professionals, which in turn reinforces their feelings of fear for making wrong decisions . (4) With regard to the principle of justice, it is finally a continuous assignment to check whether the system realizes a fair balance between the principle of equal respect for all and efficient use of resources. Here, it is important to see whether the just situation can be realized in a human LANCET ONCOLOGY way. The results from this ethical analysis, based on the four principles of biomedical ethics, are interesting but insufficient since they do not offer a comprehensive ethical view for two reasons: (1) they only offer fragmented pieces of the triage puzzle; and (2) they do not provide a view on the dynamics of the care process. To address the ethical issues of ED triage as seen from a more comprehensive ethical view, the care ethics perspective might offer additional insights.