Interestingly, the M. loti genome contains a cgmA homolog mll7848. For conciseness, mlr8375 and mll7848 are hereafter referred to as opgC and cgmA, respectively. We generated M. loti strains with mutations in opgC and/or cgmA (Table 1). We subjected cyclic β-1,2-glucans isolated from cells of the mutant strains as well as the parent strain to anion-exchange chromatography. The wild-type strain ML001 showed one neutral fraction (N) and three anionic subfractions (A1–A3) through its chromatogram, as described
previously (Kawaharada et al., 2007, 2008) (Fig. 1a). The anionic subfractions A1, A2, and A3 contain one, two, and three substituents, respectively, per glucan molecule. Phosphoglycerol and succinyl moieties contribute equally to the acidity of the molecules and appear to be distributed randomly in these subfractions (Kawaharada et al., Volasertib solubility dmso 2008). The opgC mutant YML1005 showed an elution profile similar JNK inhibitor in vivo to that for ML001, as expected from the small amount of succinyl residues in ML001 (Kawaharada et al., 2008) (Fig. 1b). The cgmA mutant YML1008, in contrast, showed considerably reduced anionic fractions, leaving a small A1 peak and, inversely, an increased neutral fraction (Fig. 1c). The wild-type cgmA allele mobilized on the plasmid (pYK88) restored anionic glucans
to the wild-type levels in YML1008 (Fig. 2). The result indicates that CgmA is required for the anionic modification of a majority of cyclic β-1,2-glucans, most likely medroxyprogesterone for glycerophosphorylation. We analyzed the residual A1 fraction from YML1008 by proton NMR spectroscopy. In the spectrum, there are no resonances attributable to glucosyl H-6 protons connecting to phosphoglycerol and H-1′ to H-3′ protons within phosphoglycerol, which were clearly detected for anionic glucans from ML001 (Kawaharada et al., 2008). Instead, a pair of triplets assigned to methylene protons (H-2′ and H-3′) of succinyl residues are intense at 2.56 and 2.60 p.p.m. (Fig. 3). The spectrum as a whole is close to that reported previously for B. abortus
cyclic β-1,2-glucans, in which succinyl residues are the only substituents (Roset et al., 2006). These results collectively indicate that the mutation in cgmA abolished all phosphoglycerol substituents of cyclic β-1,2-glucans, but that it did not affect succinyl substituents present in small amounts. The mutation in opgC abolished residual anionic fractions, i.e. succinylated cyclic β-1,2-glucans, in the cgmA-mutant background (Fig. 1c and d). Next, we attempted to test the possibility that these mutations could affect the synthesis or the export of glucan backbones. ML001 (wild type) and YML1010 (cgmA opgC double mutant) showed 0.065±0.008 (mean±SD) and 0.081±0.007, respectively, for oligosaccharides (in mg) in periplasmic extracts as expressed per milligram whole cellular proteins derived from the same amount of cells (see Materials and methods).