An in vitro

An in vitro system that can reproduce the primary metrics obtained for in vivo license with Pfizer exercise physiology could vastly improve research in this important area of human health. Simple micro-scale cantilevers have been used extensively for a variety of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices including resonators, energy harvesting devices, and an array of actuators and sensors.6, 7, 8, 9 However, complete understanding and widespread use of these systems were not achieved until modeling of their function in complex environments was performed.10, 11 The simplicity of the geometry and wide use of cantilevers in MEMS devices provides a system with

well-characterized mechanics as a platform to incorporate Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical biological components for medical and physiological research. The same underlying physics Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and simulation based modeling tools used to understand other cantilever-based devices can now be applied to bio-microelectromechanical (bioMEMS) cantilever systems to perform micro-scale force measurements on biological tissues Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that have previously only been performed on the macro-scale or with human or

animal subjects. A bioMEMS based on silicon cantilevers has been used to measure contraction characteristics of single myotubes.3, 12 Modeling this system would allow investigators to normalize force outputs based on physical parameters for both acute and chronic studies, and thereby achieve more precise data regarding the effects of chemical or pathological challenges to muscle fibers in vitro, applications in exercise physiology or for use as model Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical systems to design the next generation of robotic systems. In vivo, muscle force generation has been shown to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical correlate to muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) above other

possible predictors,13, 14, 15 and studies of muscle tissue constructs grown in vitro have normalized force to CSA.1, 4, 16, 17 However, detailed analysis of correlation of force generation of in vitro-grown skeletal muscle to morphological parameters is lacking. Specifically, studies investigating morphological Entinostat effects on force generation of single myotubes are absent from the literature. Another limit to the analytical power of the previous studies using this cantilever system was the reliance on before treating each of the myotubes analyzed as a uniform film of standard thickness and width across the cantilever. This assumption permitted calculation of myotube stress in response to contraction using a modified version of Stoney’s equation, which was established to measure stress in a thin film.18 The thin-film approximation is very simple to apply for data analysis, but a finite element analysis (FEA) approach to modeling myotubes is more rigorous due to more detailed mechanical calculations of the internal forces in the cell.

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