8×10-8 Stine et al94 also reported evidence

for linkage

8×10-8. Stine et al94 also reported evidence

for linkage to a distinct and separate region, 18q21-2. This 18q linkage was supported by the LOD score method (LOD is 3.51 for D18S41) and the ASP method (P=0.00002 at D18S41) in paternal pedigrees. In an extension of this work, McMahon et al109 provided additional evidence for linkage to 18q21-2 in 30 new BP kindreds. This locus may have been detected by Freimer et al114 and Mclnnes et al115 who studied Costa Rican BP kindreds. Mclnnes et al115 described evidence for increased allele sharing at some of the same markers identified by McMahon et al.109 For example, at D18S55, McMahon et al109 reported a nonparametric LOD score of 2.2, while Mclnnes et al115 at this same marker report a maximum likelihood Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical estimate of the LOD score as 1.67. Straub et al116 described linkage of BP illness to 21q21, near the phosphofructokinase locus. An extended Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical BP pedigree with a LOD score of 3.41 was reported from a series

of 57 BP kindreds; further, the APM method yielded evidence for linkage (P<0.0003 for PFKL). A confirmatory report has been described from a two-locus analysis of genotypic data Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical from 21q21 and 11p15.5 in a study by Gliding et al.56 This 21q21 BP susceptibility locus has been confirmed by DeteraWadleigh et al,117 who employed multipoint ASP analyses (P<0.001). Confirmation has been recorded by the NIMH Genetics Initiative collaborative study of BP disorder.111 Thus, there are three independent confirmatory studies of this BP susceptibility locus. Xq26, including the coagulation factor IX (F9) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical locus

is a third region of interest regarding BP susceptibility loci. The F9 locus was identified as a region of interest by Mendlewicz et al.118 A number of supportive reports followed.119-122 However, these reports involved either a single or a few DNA markers with low polymorphism content or clinically selleck kinase inhibitor assessed F9 deficiency as markers in single kindreds. Pekkarinen et al123 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical reported evidence for BP linkage (a LOD score of 3.54 at DXS994) by using multiple microsatellite DNA markers in the region near HPRT, which is ≈10 cM ccntromcric to F9, in a single large Finnish pedigree. This finding probably represents a confirmation of the previous reported F9 linkage. Confirmatory affected sibling pair data have also been published Calpain for Xq26 markers in an analysis of affected sisters.54 Blackwood et al124 reported on a single large Scottish kindred which showed linkage (LOD 4.1 at D4S394) to 4p DNA markers, near the α2C adrenergic and D5 dopaminergic receptor genes. They found weakly positive LOD scores in several smaller kindreds of die same ethnic origins. They found no mutations in the dopamine receptor gene. Confirmation of the 4p locus has been noted by Nothen et al,125 in which increased allele-sharing was noted at D4S394 (P=0.0009). Ginns et al126 conducted a genomic scan of multiple kindreds from the Old Order Amish community near Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

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