Thus, it should be cautioned that the KHQ might not completely re

Thus, it should be cautioned that the KHQ might not completely represent this important area and it is recommended that it could be supplemented with a short measure

of sexual functioning, such as the Brief Sexual Function Inventory,19 to enhance clinical assessment of HR-QoL. Our results support the usefulness of the traditional Chinese version of the KHQ for assessment in men with LUTS and it is hoped that the KHQ and the IPSS may help health providers in primary care settings recognize the impact of LUTS and further improve HR-QoL. Nonetheless, some limitations must be noted. First, we did not analyze other medical problems (e.g. hypertension, diabetes, or others), or background variables for HR-QoL in this study. We assumed that the influence of the other factors was minimal to the disease-specific KHQ. Second, the responsiveness, selleck compound which assesses whether a questionnaire can detect changes in a patient’s condition after treatment, and the test-retest reproducibility are also considered to be important indicators of validity. However, we could not perform such evaluations in this cross-sectional study. Third, the possibility of participants failing to correctly recall the information requested in this self-report survey might make a recall bias. Fourth, our findings are potentially

limited by the selection of participants on a convenience basis, leading to difficulties in generalization to other populations in Taiwan. Furthermore, the IPSS-QOL score is a single

TCL question to measure the quality of life for lower urinary tract dysfunction especially related to BPH. However, in this study we did not use IPSS-QOL for analysis. In conclusion, LUTS produced a substantial impact on different domains of HR-QoL measured by the traditional Chinese KHQ. The traditional Chinese KHQ has suitable reliability and validity, which could be used as an assessment tool for HR-QoL in men with general LUTS for future studies. There are no financial or commercial interests for the authors of the present paper. “
“To evaluate the inter-observer, intra-observer and intra-individual reliability of uroflowmetry and post-void residual urine (PVR) tests in adult men. Healthy volunteers aged over 40 years were enrolled. Every participant underwent two sets of uroflowmetry and PVR tests with a 2-week interval between the tests. The uroflowmetry tests were interpreted by four urologists independently. Uroflowmetry curves were classified as bell-shaped, bell-shaped with tail, obstructive, restrictive, staccato, interrupted and tower-shaped and scored from 1 (highly abnormal) to 5 (absolutely normal). The agreements between the observers, interpretations and tests within individuals were analyzed using kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficients. Generalizability theory with decision analysis was used to determine how many observers, tests, and interpretations were needed to obtain an acceptable reliability (> 0.80).

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