The present study was undertaken to evaluate the variation of thy

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the variation of thyroid morphology at different reproductive events (anestrus, estrus, lactation, and pregnancy) in a captive group of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) measured using sonography. Sonographic examinations of the thyroid gland and ovaries in nine sexually mature female subjects were performed weekly for 2.5 yr. A generalized linear mixed model was used to estimate the effects of the reproductive events for thyroid volume. Reproductive event was found to be a significant predictor for thyroid Enzalutamide chemical structure volume measurement and significant variation in thyroid

volume was found between different reproductive events. A significantly larger thyroid volume in lactating females was observed when compared with estrous and anestrous females, possibly due to the high energy requirements and milk production during lactation. Taken together, PI3K Inhibitor Library thyroid volume variation during different reproductive events in female dolphins should be considered so as to obtain a diagnostically meaningful assessment when conducting routine examinations. “
“Life history parameters were determined for stranded and bycaught harbor

porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from Scottish (UK) waters (1992–2005). Fetal growth rate was 84.4 mm/mo and mean size at birth was 76.4 cm (range 65–88 cm). Males and females had a similar range of body lengths (65–170 cm and 66–173 cm, respectively), although asymptotic lengths were higher in females than males (approximately 158 cm and 147 cm, respectively). Nonpregnant females were significantly lighter, in relation to their length than males.

Maximum estimated age was 20 yr for both sexes. Age at sexual maturity (ASM) was estimated as 4.35 yr in females and 5.00 yr in males. Conception occurred mainly in July and August although reproductively active males were recorded during April to July. Gestation lasted 10–11 mo, with calving mainly between May and July. Lactating females were recorded during June to November, while small calves with solid food Dichloromethane dehalogenase in their stomachs were found mainly during February to May. Estimated pregnancy rate (0.34–0.40) is lower than recorded elsewhere, but is likely underestimated due to the prevalence of mature females of poor health status in the sample. Nevertheless, cetacean strandings can be an essential source of data on demographic parameters. “
“Environmental variations can influence the structure of ecological communities that in turn alter the grouping and association patterns of social communities. This study compares the social structure of bottlenose dolphins in the Bahamas before and after two major hurricanes. Approximately 30% of regularly seen individuals disappeared after the hurricanes, with an equal number of immigrants arriving afterwards.

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