The immobilization can lead to increased demineralization of

The immobilization can lead to increased demineralization of

the skeleton. Such observations were documented in patients with traumatic spinal cord injuries, among whom the renal diseases Selleckchem Sunitinib were historically the leading cause of death. The incidence of renal calculi in this group of individuals is assessed to be at 20%. The risk of urinary stone disease is especially high during the first 6 months after immobilization, when the bone mass resorption is the highest [9]. The other risk factor of hypercalciuria in the past history, present in our patient, is chronic treatment with glucocorticosteroids as the management of intracranial overpressure. Glucocorticoids increase bone resorption and sustain marked hypercalciuria leading to stone formation [10]. The next risk factor of the nephrolithiasis which could be observed in our patient might have been low fluid intake VEGFR inhibitor associated with inadequate nutrition. Despite the feeding by nasogastric tube, the patient was cachectic and his total proteins level in serum was below the normal limit. Therefore we can confirm that his nutrition was inappropriate for his demand. In children with neurological disorders, especially in patients with swallowing

problems, severe caloric-protein malnutrition could often be seen [11] and [12]. The problem is less common in patients fed by nasogastric tube or percutaneus endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), however lack of appetite and thirst and the absence of self-feeding between main meals contribute to inadequate calories intake. Neurofibromatosis type 1 could be associated with some bone abnormalities as well as congenital kidney defects (horseshoe kidney, renal artery stenosis) [13], [14] and [15]. However it seems that the disease per se is not a risk factor of nephrolithiasis. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one report of the association of neurofibromatosis type 1 with nephrolithiasis published so far [10].

The diagnostic problem we faced in our patient was the confounding clinical course of the presented filipin complication. Patients with urinoma frequently present with clinical symptoms such as flank pain and haematuria; however urine leakage may be also clinically occult or from the other side leads to acute abdomen symptoms [4]. Our patient presented anxiety, some discomfort and abdominal pain 13 days before the haematuria occurred and urinoma has been found on ultrasound. The complaints seemed to be connected with chronic constipation and diminished after stool evacuation. We could not exclude that partial closing of the outlet from the right kidney pelvis was also a cause of pain and discomfort at this time. The gross hematuria which occurred on the day 28th of hospitalization could be the result of stone downward dislocation with the simultaneous injury of the urinary collecting system wall. However at this time no anxiety or discomfort was noted.

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