The beta-diversity calculated for each host species was significa

The beta-diversity calculated for each host species was significantly lower than the diversity when

samples were grouped by sample date or selleck inhibitor site (Additional file 1: Table S3). The dominant T-RFs (the group of the T-RFs which have an average proportion more than 3% of the total) for these three species (Additional file 1: Table S2) reveal that each host species had its own characteristic group of dominant T-RFs. Especially the most dominant T-RFs differed among these three species. These observations indicate that the host species has properties determining the compositions of their leaf endophytic bacterial populations. The pCCA result of treating host species as the environmental factor with sampling dates and locations as covariables in analyzing T-RFLP profiles using Cediranib data from five host plant species supports that T-RF patterns are influenced by the host species identity (Figure 2 (c)). In the pCCA biplots, S. nutans and P. virgatum were close to each other, indicating that the leaf endophytic bacterial communities from these two species were similar to each other. Those of the other three host species were distinct from each other with A. viridis the most distinct, since the data point of A. viridis lay on the other end of the first axis. The analysis was

performed also using only May, June and July data to guard against bias introduced by the absence of A. viridis August data. The results were essentially the same. These results are consistent with the features of the host plant species: both S. nutans and P. virgatum are grass species; A. viridis is different from the other four species because it contains latex, giving it the common name “milkweed”. Permutation tests revealed host species as a significant factor (p-value = 0.0001). We also studied the impacts of the sampling dates and host plant locations based on the 5-species dataset using pCCA. Results (data not shown) indicate that both of these factors were also significant with p-values < 0.01. The 5-species pCCA biplots confirm

the inference we obtained from the A. viridis pCCA biplots, that samples from May were more distinct from other samples Isotretinoin considering sampling date as an environmental factor, and samples from Site 1 were more distinct from other samples considering sampling site as an environmental factor. After an analysis using all three factors as environmental factors, we were able also to partition the overall variation to reveal how much variation was contributed by each factor. Results calculated from pCCA eigenvalues indicated that host plant species contributed 49.8% of the overall variation, sampling date contributed 28.5%, and host plant locations contributed 14.2%. Thus although these three factors all significantly determined the HMPL-504 mw structure of endophytic bacteria, host plant species was the most important factor, followed by sampling date and host locations.

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