Our cases provide a compelling argument for the promotion of vacc

Our cases provide a compelling argument for the promotion of vaccination against this disease, as recommended by the World Health Organization. The authors state they have no conflicts of interest to declare. “
“The aim of this prospective observational cohort study was to investigate relationships

between acute mountain sickness (AMS) and physical and mental health during a high altitude expedition. Forty-four participants (mean age, 34 ± 13 y; body mass index, 23.6 ± 3.5 kg·m2; 57% male) completed the Dhaulagiri base camp trek in Nepal, a 19-day expedition attaining 5,372 m. Participants self-reported the following daily physical and mental health: AMS (defined by Lake Louise diagnosis and individual and total symptom scores), upper respiratory symptoms, diarrhea, and anxiety, plus physiological and behavioral Metformin in vitro factors. The rate of Lake Louise-defined AMS per 100 person days was 9.2 (95% CI: 7.2–11.7). All investigated illnesses except diarrhea increased with altitude (all p < 0.001 by analysis of variance). Total AMS symptom score was associated with a lower arterial oxygen saturation, higher resting heart rate, more upper respiratory and diarrhea symptoms, greater anxiety, and lower fluid intake (all p < 0.02 by longitudinal multiple regression

analyses). However, only upper respiratory symptoms, PI3K inhibitor drugs heart rate, arterial oxygen saturation, and fluid intake predicted future AMS symptoms [eg, an increase in upper respiratory symptoms by 5 units predicted an increase in the following day's AMS total symptom score by 0.72 units (0.54–0.89)]. Upper respiratory symptoms and anxiety increasingly contributed to symptom burden as altitude was gained. Data were consistent with increased heart rate, decreased arterial oxygen saturation, reduced fluid intake, and upper respiratory oxyclozanide symptoms being causally associated with AMS. Upper respiratory symptoms and fluid

intake are the simplest targets for intervention to reduce AMS during high altitude exposure. Many people travel to mountainous regions for work and recreation. In Nepal alone, over 130,000 foreigners visit each year to complete trekking and mountaineering activities[1] of which half may get acute mountain sickness (AMS).[2] However, general illnesses such as diarrhea and upper respiratory symptoms, and also psychological disturbances, contribute to ill health experienced at altitude.[3-5] The intrusive nature of such general illnesses is likely to limit work capacity and enjoyment. There is also a substantial risk of having to be evacuated from expeditions due to such illnesses,[6] and a small but real risk of such illnesses eventually resulting in death.[7] Furthermore, conditions such as diarrhea, upper respiratory symptoms, and anxiety may be of considerable relevance to AMS since the conditions share many of the same symptoms (eg, nausea).

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