Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats
were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n=12) and experimental group (n=20). Kaolin was injected into the lateral ventricle of experimental animals. Control rats underwent the same procedure but received sterile saline injection instead of kaolin. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess ventricle size. The CSF was studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the excised brains were studied by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analyses to measure the messenger RNA and protein expression level of HGF, MMP-9 and TGF-beta 1. Results: Hydrocephalus was induced in all the rats after PHA-848125 kaolin injection into the lateral ventricle. After 2 weeks, the expressions of HGF, MMP-9 and TGF-beta 1 in the CSF and cerebral tissue were significantly increased in the experimental group compared with the control group. Conclusions: This results indicated that HGF, MMP-9 and TGF-beta 1 may participate in the formation and prognosis of hydrocephalus after kaolin induction.”
echocardiographic (3DE) analysis provides better measurements of left ventricular (LV) volumes, ejection fraction, myocardial deformation, and dyssynchrony. Many studies have shown that this technique has high intrainstitutional reproducibility. However, interinstitutional find more reproducibility is low, limiting its adoption. The aim of this study was to determine if standardization of training could reduce the interinstitutional variability ACY-738 in 3DE data analysis.\n\nMethods: In total, 50 full-volume, transthoracic 3DE data sets
of the left ventricle were analyzed by two readers. Measurements obtained included LV volumes, ejection fraction, global longitudinal strain, and two dyssynchrony indices. The cases represented a wide spectrum of ejection fraction. After initial analysis of 21 studies, readers formally met to standardize their analytic approach on six additional cases. Five months after the intervention, 23 new cases were analyzed. Paired t tests were performed to identify systematic institutional differences in measurements. Interinstitutional variability was quantified using intraclass correlation coefficients and variability.\n\nResults: Before the intervention, there was a systematic bias in LV volumes, which was eliminated after intervention. Intraclass correlation coefficients showed that the intervention improved agreement in measurements of LV volumes, strain, and dyssynchrony between the two centers and decreased variability.\n\nConclusions: A simple intervention to standardize analysis can reduce interinstitutional variability of measurements obtained from 3DE analysis.