Inasmuch, improvements in stabilization could be achieved by coating the interface with nanoparticles. Figure 1 TEM images. (a) Typical Au nanoparticles as building units and (b to d) typical interfacial polygonal patterning via surfactant-mediated self-assembly of Au nanoparticles with
different magnifications. Experimental conditions: AuNPs (Au/DDT = 0.1); AuNPs (2STU) + DDT (0.11 M; 22 mL) + PVP (1.25 mM; 0.5 mL), 180°C, 4 h. See Additional file 1: SI-1 for more information on their detailed experimental conditions. To further uncover the interfacial polygonal patterning, Figure 2 depicts formation route using functionalized AuNPs. Under ambient conditions, DDT-capped AuNPs tend to agglomerate together via van der Waals forces generated among their surface alkyl headgroups (Figure 2a). Upon heating, it is
clear MLN2238 nmr that solvothermal process GS-4997 solubility dmso is an essential condition to activate surface reactivity of AuNPs (Figure 2b) and thus to initiate 3D networking (Figure 2c,d), though alcohol washing (hydrothermal washing) may also facilitate this process. On the other hand, chemical conversion of DDT to sulfate salt under the same hydrothermal condition can also reduce total amount of DDT in the synthetic system, which is equivalent to the partial removal of DDT surfactant. Since it is still adsorbed on the Au sponges (Figure 2d) after particle aggregation, the DDT also serves as a protecting reagent for the product. Therefore,
the key to the formation of sponges lies on the manipulation of alkanethiol content in the synthesis. Additionally, PVP, as one of ideal candidates of surfactants for gold nanostructures , is implemented to fabricate functional interfaces by virtue of its GSK2399872A variant solubility in different solvents (i.e., cyclohexane and 2-propanol). Ideally, patterned PVP cakes were built at the bottom of Teflon liner, exhibiting their flat planes with spherical-cap appearance learn more (Figure 2e). The interfacial structures (Figure 2f) were depicted, resulting from the packing of PVP molecules. As a further confirmation, detached or naked AuNPs were captured by tentacles and embedded into PVP cakes due to the affinity of Au and PVP. Thereupon, the formation process presents binary assembly, including PVP cakes assembly (i.e., interface fabrication) and assembly of AuNPs on PVP cakes, inorganic–organic nanocomposites in nature. Figure 2 Schematic illustrations. Formation of interfacial polygonal patterning via (a to b and b to f) surfactant-mediated self-assembly of gold nanoparticles and (a to b and b to d) formation of gold sponges. The insets stand for the figure legend. With respect to detailed investigation, two types of patterns such as hexagonal or complex patterns were proposed combined with patterns of foamed construction materials.