Exclusion criteria included: chronic hepatitis B [hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive at screening]; hepatitis C virus infection (RNA positive) that was likely
to require treatment within the next 12 months, or with historical evidence selleck inhibitor of significant fibrosis, cirrhosis and/or hepatic decompensation; a new AIDS-defining condition diagnosed within 35 days prior to the first dose of the study drug; presence of Q151M or 69 insertion mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase at screening; current treatment with zalcitabine; a regimen comprised only of three nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Women of childbearing potential were required to have a negative pregnancy test and adequate contraception was required of all patients. Patients were randomly assigned
in a 1:1:1 buy Ixazomib ratio to receive 600 mg ATC twice daily (bid), 800 mg ATC bid or 150 mg 3TC bid, taken orally, plus matching placebos. Double dummy dosing was used in this study. 3TC was given as over-encapsulated 150 mg tablets and patients in the two ATC arms received a placebo capsule matching the 3TC capsule in size, colour and approximate weight. Patients in the 3TC arm received placebo capsules matching the ATC capsules. A centralized randomization scheme was used and randomization was stratified by the number of TAMs present at screening (fewer than three
TAMs or at least three TAMs/K65R), according to the study protocol. Throughout the study, both patients and investigators were blinded to the treatment allocation. The study design is shown in Figure 1. The study was divided into the following treatment periods. On day 0, patients stopped their existing 3TC or FTC treatment and commenced blinded therapy. Reverse transcriptase No other changes to background ART were permitted during this period. On day 21, the background ART could be optimized to contain at least two agents expected to provide activity based on genotype at screening, and blinded therapy continued to week 24. Any approved ART could be used with the exceptions of 3TC, FTC and zalcitabine. After week 24, patients ceased randomized therapy and were offered open-label ATC (800 mg bid) to week 48. After day 21, re-optimization of background ART for lack of response/virological failure was permitted and access to open-label ATC 800 mg bid was provided upon meeting failure criteria (a confirmed<0.5 log10 reduction in HIV RNA from baseline or a confirmed >1 log10 increase in HIV RNA from nadir). The choice of ART for this subsequent regimen was based on genotype at screening or at subsequent evaluations.