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“Purpose\n\nThe long-term impact of thalidomide plus dexamethasone (thal/dex) as primary therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma ( MM) is unknown. The goal of this study was to compare thalidomide plus dexamethasone versus placebo plus dexamethasone (placebo/dex) as primary therapy for newly diagnosed MM.\n\nPatients and Methods\n\nIn this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients with untreated symptomatic MM were randomized to thal/dex ( arm A) or to placebo plus dexamethasone (dex) ( arm B). Patients in arm A received oral thalidomide 50 mg daily, escalated to 100 mg on day 15, and to 200 mg from day 1 of cycle 2 (28-day cycles). Oral dex 40 mg was administered on days 1 through 4, 9 through 12, and 17 through 20 during cycles 1 through 4 and on days 1 through
4 only from cycle 5 onwards. Patients in arm B received placebo and dex, administered as in arm A. The primary end point of the study was time to progression. This study is registered at http://ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00057564).\n\nResults\n\nA total of 470 patients were enrolled ( 235 randomly assigned to thal/dex and 235 to placebo/dex). The overall response rate was significantly higher with thal/dex LY2090314 datasheet compared with placebo/dex (63% v 46%), IPI-145 cost P < .001. Time to progression (TTP)
was significantly longer with thal/dex compared with placebo/dex ( median, 22.6 v 6.5 months, P < .001). Grade 4 adverse events were more frequent with thal/dex than with placebo/dex (30.3% v 22.8%).\n\nConclusion\n\nThal/dex results in significantly higher response rates and significantly prolongs TTP compared with dexamethasone alone in patients with newly diagnosed MM.”
“Background: The intestinal crypt homeostasis is maintained by a combination of growth factors including Wnt, R-Spondin1, Noggin and the epidermal growth factor (EGF). In human colorectal cancer, the Wnt pathway is constitutively activated through genetic and epigenetic alterations in as many as 11 genes encoding components of this crypt stem-cell maintenance mechanism. Although the proliferation of colon cancer cells does not require Wnt, it is possible that colon cancer cells can still respond to the crypt growth factors in the colonic microenvironment. A number of studies have shown that epithelial cells behave differently in 3-D versus 2-D cultures. Because the 3-D conditions more closely mimic the in vivo environment, we examined the effects of Wnt and other crypt growth factors on colon cancer cell growth in 3-D culture.\n\nMethods: Colon cancer cells were grown in 3-D matrigel supplemented with different combinations of crypt growth factors and colonies were examined for morphology and pathways.