As shown in Figure 2, a significant (p < 0.01) increase in plasma oxidative stress markers, ROS-generating potential (Figure 2A) and protein carbonyls (Figure 2B) were TPCA-1 cell line observed 12 hours after muscle damage in both conditions. After 36 hours recovery, a gradual decrease in plasma selleck products ROS-generating potential (Figure 2A) was observed in the blueberry condition, whereas ROS-generating potential
remained elevated in the control condition (p < 0.01). A large and significant (p < 0.01) increase in plasma carbonyls was observed at 12 hours in both conditions, followed by a gradual decrease (Figure 2B). Although an accelerated decline in plasma carbonyls was observed with blueberries, Vadimezan in vivo the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). Inflammatory biomarkers associated with muscle damage, CK and IL-6 were measured. A gradual and significant (p < 0.05) increase in serum CK (Figure 2C) was observed in both conditions, between pre-exercise and 36 hours after. The CK levels detected following 60 hours recovery were lower in the blueberry beverage condition for the majority (8 out of 10) of the participants, however the overall difference was not significant (p = 0.840). In addition, no interaction effect between time and treatment
was observed (p = 0.426). Assessment of plasma IL-6 (Figure 2D) during the recovery period revealed a gradual increase in plasma IL-6 following exercise. Although this was significantly (p < 0.05) PJ34 HCl different from pre-exercise levels after 36 hours and 60 hours of recovery in both the blueberry and control beverage conditions, no blueberry treatment (p = 0.198) or time x treatment
interactions (p = 0.721) were observed. Figure 2 Modulation of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory markers after strenuous exercise. [A] Plasma oxidative capacity, [B] protein carbonyls, [C] creatine kinase or [D] interleukin (IL)-6 were assessed immediately before (pre) and then 12, 36 or 60 hours after 300 eccentric contractions of the quadriceps under control (♦) or blueberry (■) conditions. Results are expressed as mean ± standard error of percentage change from pre-eccentric exercise measurements. * P < 0.05 represents significant time difference from pre-exercise levels and § P < 0.05 represents significant treatment (blueberry) and time interaction, n = 10 volunteers. Total antioxidant capacity The consumption of blueberries had no statistical effect on plasma antioxidant capacity prior to the onset of the eccentric exercise (Figure 3A); control (p = 0.140) and blueberry (p = 0.149), respectively. However, assessment of plasma antioxidant capacity between the pre-treatment and the 60 hour recovery time point revealed a significant treatment x time interaction (p = 0.038).