After 3 years of follow-up, measurements of static muscle click here endurance in the low back, neck and shoulder region
were repeated, but for practical reasons, lifting strength was only measured once at baseline. We selected a study population of workers who worked at least 1 year in their current job for more than 20 h per week, not receiving a sickness FRAX597 solubility dmso benefit or a permanent disability pension (approximately 1,500 workers). Measurement of isokinetic lifting strength and static muscle endurance Trained physiotherapists performed the different tests of muscular capacity. At baseline, isokinetic lifting strength of the back and neck/shoulder muscles was measured. Both at baseline and after 3 years of follow-up, sub-maximal endurance time of static contraction of the back, neck and shoulder muscles was measured. Isokinetic
lifting strength of the low back and neck/shoulder muscles was measured using the Aristokin dynamometer (Lode BV Medical Technology, Groningen, the Netherlands). The lifting strength was measured during three lifting movements with maximum effort and a velocity of 40 cm/s with a rest period of 30 s in between, both standardized movements upright from floor to hip level, and from hip to shoulder level. Isokinetic lifting strength (in Newtons) was defined as the average outcome of the second and third lift. Static endurance of the back, neck and shoulder muscles was defined as the number of seconds during which the workers could Anlotinib cost keep a position, while carrying a gender-specific load (maximized at 240 and 420 s,
for the low back and the neck/shoulder regions, respectively). The Biering-Sørensen test (1984) was used for the back extensors. During this test, workers were lying prone on a table and had to keep their unsupported upper part of the body in a horizontal position with fixation of the buttocks and legs. For the measurement of the static endurance Thymidine kinase of the neck extensors, the workers had to keep their head flexed in a sitting position, while carrying a loaded helmet of 5 kg for males and 2.5 kg for females. For the measurement of the static endurance of the shoulder elevators, workers had to keep their arms elevated at 90° in a sitting position, while carrying a load of 2.5 kg for males and 1.5 kg for females. The endurance tests were finished when a discomfort rating of 5 in the test region or a score of 7 in another part of the body (on a 10-point Borg scale) was reported (Borg 1990; Van der Grinten 1992). Workers with contraindications (such as cardiovascular diseases, fever or pregnancy) that might involve a health risk, or that might have an effect on the results of the tests, were excluded from the physical capacity tests. In addition, workers who reported a discomfort rating of 4 or higher before the start of the test were excluded from the tests.