Across groups, VPP latencies were reduced in response to sad compared with happy face stimuli. Between groups, individuals with bipolar disorder demonstrated overall increased latencies in P80 and VPP ERP components. Current and previous studies suggest that patients with bipolar disorder Mdivi1 exhibit early visual processing deficits, but the present study contributes new evidence of a deficit in the visual P80 ERP. Delayed neural responses may be an ERP correlate of white matter deficits that have previously been identified. Furthermore, implications for early visual impairments may involve behavioural symptoms downstream.
NeuroReport 23: 152-156 (C) 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Somatic hypermutation (SHM) of Ig genes in B cells is crucial for antibody affinity maturation. The reaction is initiated by cytosine deamination of Ig, loci by activation induced deaminase (AID) and is completed by error-prone DNA repair enzyme processing
of AID-generated uracils. The mechanisms that target SHM specifically to Ig loci are poorly understood. Recently, it has been demonstrated that although AID preferentially targets Ig loci, it acts surprisingly widely on non-Ig loci, many of which are protected from mutation accumulation by high-fidelity DNA repair. We propose that breakdown of this high fidelity repair process helps explain oncogene mutations observed in B-cell tumors, and further, that many oncogenes are vulnerable to AID-mediated Tideglusib in vitro DNA breaks and translocations in normal activated B cells.”
“Spinal cord injury is often followed by disuse muscle atrophy. The effect of disuse Org 27569 muscle atrophy on motor neurons below the level of spinal cord lesions is not fully understood. We produced spinal contusions in the mid-thoracic segment
(Th7/8) of rats. To promote disuse muscle atrophy, their hind limbs were immobilized. Alpha-motor neurons in L4/5 at 3 weeks postinjury showed signs of degeneration associated with disuse muscle atrophy. Muscle atrophy alone did not produce a significant a-motor neuronal degeneration. Our results demonstrate that disuse muscle atrophy within the context of spinal cord injury exacerbates motor neuronal degeneration in caudal regions remote from the injury. NeuroReport 23: 157-161 (C) 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Quantitative understanding of immunology requires the development of experimental and mathematical techniques for estimation of rates of division and death of lymphocytes under different conditions. Here, we review the advantages and limitations of several labelling methods that are currently used to quantify turnover of lymphocytes in vivo.